"우리는 이제 이해했습니다."
Translation:We now understand.
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This may be a bit difficult to explain (although I have done it for other verbs that are used similarly)…
It is in the past tense because the fact that you are understanding it now is due to you having a moment of insight at some point in the past. Think of the past tense as referring to having experienced that moment of insight. By having that moment, you are now continuously understanding in your present state. The Koreans to not refer to this state, but to that moment in the past.
"이해하다" in the present tense is used as an expression of empathy, to say one shares the views and feelings of the other person (on a certain situation).
너의 기분을 이해해요 = I share your feelings; I know how you feel
네 상황을 이해해요 = I am aware of your situation/I know what you've been through
염려하시는 점, 이해합니다. We share your concern
이해해? = Can you read me?
이제 - from now on, as of now, henceforth, onward [AmE]
지금 - now
우리는 이제 이해했습니다 - Lit. From now on, we understand. This can be understood as:
(i) We now understand;
(ii) We have now understood;
(iii) We didn't understand until now.
The past tense is used in the example because in Korean concept, the "understanding" happens before the statement itself is made.