Translation:A lot of sugar?
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For what it's worth, as a native (US) English speaker, I don't think there's anything at all wrong with the English translation "a lot of sugar," whether it's used as a question or as a statement. The only way I'd expect to hear "much sugar" used in English would be in a phrase like "too much sugar" or "how much sugar." (YMMV.)
I (native AmE) feel a slight difference between "a lot of sugar" and "plenty of sugar."
To my ear, the first is a simple statement of quantity, while the second feels more like a statement of quantity relative to some unspecified standard or need. So, to me, "we have plenty of sugar" says not only that we have a lot of sugar, but also that we may have even more than we need for some specific purpose (like baking six trays of yummy brownies for the picnic...)
I don't have any problem with accepting "plenty of" if it works for the Czech natives on the team. But I do think it sounds better in a declarative statement than in a question, unless the question is just repeating what someone else has said -- A: "Do we have enough sugar?" B: "We have plenty of sugar!" A: "Plenty of sugar?"