"쓴 와인을 마시지 않는 남자"
Translation:A man who does not drink bitter wine
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The whole description in front of "남자" is a participle (a verb acting as an adjective). We know that adjectives go in front of the noun it's describing, so since the description is a participle, it goes in front of man. This isn't an action, but a description. What you wrote was an action
What you wrote is wrong because this isn't a complete sentence. If it were a sentence, there would be a verb AFTER 남자 (man). - "The man does not drink bitter wine" is 남자가 쓴 와인을 마시지 않아요. - "The man who does not drink bitter wine drinks water" is 쓴 와인을 마시지 않는 남자가 물을 마셔요.
The sentence structure in English is —
Subject, Verb, Object
Ex. I hate you. I= subject hate= verb you= object
However, in Korean the same sentence would be written like —
Subject, Object, Verb
Ex. I, you, hate = 나는 너 싫다.
나= I 너= You 싫다= Hate
A man who hates shoes in Korean word order would be "A shoe-hating man"