"A pencil is a thing."
I'm not that good at korean but I think 물건 means "thing" and then 인니다 means "is a"
인니다 is the meaning of be In english "be" (am, is, are ) 3 types but In korean "be" only one types
When you say human do you mean alive? Or does it have to be a person
According to the Tips and notes section - 은/는 is used in generalized statements!
But sometimes when you say "the" it's 이/가 and it seems like 이 means "this" also, anyway I think that how you can use 은/는 when you want to say "the" you can use 이/가 the same way...
Im not sure but i think its because pencil is mentioned for the first time (youre bringing a new topic) so you use the topic marking particle.
This topic is too big for a comment. There are pages of books and many YouTube videos devoted to trying to explain this. Look up subject marking particles, object marking particles and topic marking particles. This is the sort of grammar that the Duolingo format will never be able to explain.
은 or 는 is the SUBJECT particle. Used to identify the subject in a sentence, similar to particle "wa" in Japanese I believe.
은/는 also use for people eg: 저 는 (means "I") I think 은/는 is added after a Subject.
은/는 is a particle you stick after a word to indicate that the word is the subject of the sentence
I learned that "thing" is 것 like in 이것/이거 for "this thing". So what's the difference between 물건 and 것?