"He drank a glass of red wine."
Translation:Il a bu un verre de vin rouge.
Bu is a past participle (drunk) and cannot be used without an auxiliary in this sentence (it would be like saying "he drunk wine").
If you really want to literally translate the preterite drank, you can use the past historic "il but", however this tense is not taught on duolingo and probably not accepted because it's very rarely use in practice outside of formal writing. It's better to use "il a bu" for both preterite and present perfect.