"A child spins a pencil."
Translation:아이는 연필을 돌려요.
It's a bit tricky, I did the same mistake: 돌다: to turn, to spin 돌리다: to make sthg spin 돌아오다: to come back 돌아가다: to go back, to return * 돌려주다: to give back, to return sthg I decided to learn them all separately, but understanding how these variations came to exist still really helps to memorise
I saw this in another post, but this is what I learned from it:
The suffix -가/-이 is used when you're talking about something specific. For example, when you want to describe the taste of a specific apple, you might say, "this apple tastes sweet", which would be: 이 사과가 달아요.
The suffix -은/-는 is used in a generalized scenario. For example, if you were describing the taste of all apples, you would say, "apples are sweet", which would be: 사과는 달아요.
Yup, but there's many more nuances to 가/는.
For example 는 can also be used to make a comparative statement.
사과는 달아요 The apple sweet, (compared to another apple we talked about before)
가 can also be used to indicate that the fact has been made due to a recent observation.
사과 달아요 The apple is sweet! (Based off the fact that I just took a bite)
So 가/는 can have many different nuances, and since we never know the context of these questions, both 아이가 and 아이는 should be possible.
There is no direct relationship between '돌려요' and '빌려요'.
Basically, '돌려요', '빌려요' are abbreviated form of '돌리어요', '빌리어요'. '돌리어요' is made of '돌'- from the basic form '돌다', '-이/리-' which is causative, and colloquial ending or informal imperative ending '-(어)요'. On the other hand, '빌리어요' is made of '빌리-' from '빌리다', and '-(어)요'.
Though they are similar in their looks, '리' of '빌려요' is from its basic form, unlike '리' of '돌려요' which is causative.