Translation:I did not understand what my boss wanted from me.
It should not. Czech and English have different approach to tense sequencing. https://www.helpforenglish.cz/article/2011021902-casova-souslednost-tabulka
I understand this sentence to mean 'I did not understand what my boss wants from me'. That is a continuing state of affars rather than 'what my boss wanted from me'. A completed state now finished. I am not interested in the English technacalities only how to express myself in Czech. As you may be aware I am a 78 year old native UK english speaker. Good luck in the new year and I do really appreciate your help.
Because in Czech in complex sentences you can use Past + Present if dependent clause says about the same time as main clause. But in English you must use Past + Past. You can see the table in kacenka9 post upper - it shows how dependend clause in Present transforms to the Past.
I don't quite agree about the English... If the subject of the dependent clause is different from the main, then it depends on what is being emphasized. If the dependent clause refers to an unchanging condition, then past--present is fine: "when I moved here I didn't realize that it always rains"... Though rained would be ok too. If the subject of both clauses is the same, I agree that you need tense agreement.
The "-e" version of prepositions is intended to facilitate pronunciation, generally (but not exclusively) when the preposition is followed by a word that starts with a consonant cluster, as in this case. For more, see, for example, One Letter Preposition Extending at the end of the article here: https://mluvtecesky.net/en/grammar/pronunciation.
Please, is the past perfect tense not appropriate in the second part of this sentence?
"I didn't understand what the boss had wanted from me."
Or is it not close enough to the original? I thought it was better in English. (Or "...is better" , now I do not know 😊) The boss has to want something first and then I can understand it.
You are going too far on the English side. While much of the debate here has dealt with whether or not the English backshift is mandatory (it isn't), there is no mechanism to convert the Czech present tense in the subordinate clause to the English past perfect.
The meaning of the past perfect in the reported "speech" is that what the past perfect described took place before the reporting verb action in the main clause. In other words, the speaker did not understand (in the past, so "nerozuměl") what the boss "had wanted" (even deeper in the past, prior to the "not understanding", so not concurrently with the "not understanding", so definitely "chtěl", not "chce").
The natural way of saying that in English is "I thought it was better in English" and "I thought people were smart".
And "I didn't understand what the boss had wanted from me." means "Nechápal jsem, co ode mě (tehdy/kdysi) šéf chtěl" - tj. co ode mě chtěl někdy ještě před tou dobou, než je ta doba, kdy jsem to nechápal. Perhaps 50 years ago we could still say "Nechápal jsem, co ode mě šéf byl chtěl" to express this, but this is obsolete now.
z určité části záleží na tom, jestli je věc nadále aktuální. I thought it was better in English by určitě bylo lepší, kdych si to už nemyslel, kdežto "is better" by se celkem hodilo, myslím-li si to i v době promluvy. je to hodně subjektivní, a lidi volbou času můžou signalizovat svoje postoje. bohužel mnoho závisí i na intonaci věty.
pro našince je lepší automaticky dělat backshift a vyhnout se mu jen v případech všeobecně platných pravd.
Je dost možné, že v angličtině se to tedy tak nepoužívá. V češtině řekneme třeba "Jak to, že jsi dostal trojku? Myslel jsem, že to umíš." . A očekávám, že mi vysvětlí, jak se to stalo, přestože to umí. Tak mi jde o to, jestli bych mohl říct v angličtině "I thought you know it well."
Podobně i s tím "I thought it is better in English." Očekávám, že mi někdo vysvětlí, přestože je to v angličtině správné, tak tady se to neuplatní. (A dočkal jsem se 😊 děkuji).