"개는 친구가 있습니다."
Translation:The dog has a friend.
I think I got it! After a month! Wow.
"개는 (who are we talking about? the dog) 친구가 (what does the dog have? a friend!) 있습니다 (verb to have)."
It would be : The friend has a dog if:
친구는 (who are we talking about: the friend) 개가 (what does the friend have? a dog) 있습니다 (verb to have)
Yes! The dog is the /topic/ of the sentence, which takes semantic precedence over the subject. I think 있습니다 is more literally the verb "to exist," even though it's used in the construction of "to have." So, if I want to say that X has Y in Korean, I literally say, "as for X, Y exists."
This sounds like the correct answer.
What confused me was that I didn't understand when a topic noun would be used to make a general statement instead of emphasizing/establishing the topic. In this sentence, 개는 is the latter.
I'm curious if the sentence would be correct if you change the subject noun into an object noun: "개는 친구를 있습니다"