"Ai cântat la biserică?"
Translation:Did you sing at the church?
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And in German. And like the present perfect in English. It's pretty common in European languages not to use their simple past tense in the spoken register and use instead their present perfect to do the job. Spanish does use both its simple past and its present perfect even in the spoken register though, as does English. (Note that some languages may have different names for the same constructions.)
In English the default, neutral thing is to describe your location - so "at", which is the preposition for location. If you want to stress that you were inside a building or similar then you use "in" instead, which is the preposition for interiority. So the default meaning of "sing at the church" is just "sing while your location is the church". It could also mean "sing, directed at the location of the church" but that's not the default meaning and probably would require stressing the word "at".