"I do not learn English."
Translation:저는 영어를 배우지 않습니다.
지 않다 is just another way of making the sentence negative. So 지 goes attached to the verb, taking the stem of the verb and dropping 다.
배우다 -> 배우 + 지
And the you just conjugate 않다 to make it a declarative verb. It's the same, you drop 다 and add 습니다 since 않 ends with a consonant.
I also struggled with this question when I was learning Japanese. I think I can now safely say that, in most cases, Korean 는/은 = Japanese は, and 가/이 = が. I see 가 / が as the more fundamental block of a sentence as in the example of 象は鼻が長い Here we have A は X が Y structure in Japanese, often used to tell the attributes of its topic A. To understand the difference between 는 / は and 가 / が, I always consider them in the frame of this structure. 鼻が長い (nose is long) can be seen as a block, and it's one of the attributes of an elephant A, the topic. They are connected by は, the topic marker. The almost equivalent expression in Eng would be: Elephant has long nose. However, if you were to translate "Elephant has long nose" more literally into Japanese as in 象は長い鼻がある then it's kind of artificial, with probable nuance of some new meaning (someting I really don't know how to explain). But the <sub>は</sub>が structure is the same. Now in Korean, A 는 X 가 Y structure does the same thing. You can literally translate the first Japanese sentence into Korean word by word, without any loss or change of meaning as in Eng: 코끼리는 코가 길다. Hope this can help.