"I do not learn English."
Translation:저는 영어를 배우지 않습니다.
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지 않다 is just another way of making the sentence negative. So 지 goes attached to the verb, taking the stem of the verb and dropping 다.
배우다 -> 배우 + 지
And the you just conjugate 않다 to make it a declarative verb. It's the same, you drop 다 and add 습니다 since 않 ends with a consonant.
I also struggled with this question when I was learning Japanese. I think I can now safely say that, in most cases, Korean 는/은 = Japanese は, and 가/이 = が. I see 가 / が as the more fundamental block of a sentence as in the example of 象は鼻が長い Here we have A は X が Y structure in Japanese, often used to tell the attributes of its topic A. To understand the difference between 는 / は and 가 / が, I always consider them in the frame of this structure. 鼻が長い (nose is long) can be seen as a block, and it's one of the attributes of an elephant A, the topic. They are connected by は, the topic marker. The almost equivalent expression in Eng would be: Elephant has long nose. However, if you were to translate "Elephant has long nose" more literally into Japanese as in 象は長い鼻がある then it's kind of artificial, with probable nuance of some new meaning (someting I really don't know how to explain). But the <sub>は</sub>が structure is the same. Now in Korean, A 는 X 가 Y structure does the same thing. You can literally translate the first Japanese sentence into Korean word by word, without any loss or change of meaning as in Eng: 코끼리는 코가 길다. Hope this can help.
That is what I thought as well, but it seems that whilst が and は seem very similar to how 가 and 는 work, there are some differences.
Others have told me that 가 can usually only be attached to the doer in the sentence, but not the object to put more emphasis on whatever 가 is attached to, which is where the difference lies between the two languages.
But on the other hand, putting 남자는 메시지가 있습니다 (the man has a message) into both google translate and Papago seem to yield no problems, structured in the way japanese would be. What others have told me with that Korean sentence is that it would mean the message has a man.
So honestly, idk how exactly it's different between the two languages.
I typed 영어를 안 배우다, but it said 배우다 was a typo and it should be 배운다. Can anyone enlighten me on the difference and if 배우다 is not acceptable in casual Korean conversation?