"학생들이 학교로 걸어요."
Translation:Students walk to the school.
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(N)에 걷다 - walk to (N) [N, destination]
(N) 안으로 걷다 - walk into /enter (by foot) [N is a location; 안으로 depicts a transfer to that location]
(N) 안을 걷다 - walk inside [N is a location inside which the action takes place]
(N)까지 걷다 - walk up to [N is the end limit of the walk]
(N)로 걷다 - walk toward/towards/ in the direction of N. [N, not necessarily the destination]
(1) Correct. One of the roles of 은/는 is to indicate genericness i.e. N은/는 could stand for both "a(any) N" or "Ø(all) Ns", in English.
To distinguish this aspect of genericness (mainly for foreign learners' sake) often the suffix -"들" is added to N, (i.e. N들) to clarify plurality (i.e. N은/는, for a(any) N; and N들은, for Ø(all) Ns).
Remember the other roles of 은/는 include:
N들은 = Regarding Ns (categorizing role)
N들은 = 'Thee' Ns/They (referential role)
N들은 = All of the Ns or The Ns, whereas [...] (contrasting role)
In this instance, as you have rightly pointed out: "Ø-Students walk to (the) school" would imply "all students or any/every student", that which seems highly unlikely.
(2) However, the use of 이/가 in no way suggests "학생들이" stands for "the students". It depends on the context of the sentence, i.e. 학생들(students) can be used to mean either "the students" or "Ø students".
Some instances when "학생들이" is used to mean "Ø students": when 이/가 is used to mark subject of a subordinate clause; or when used to seek new information e.g.
학생들이 요즘에 운동을 좋아하지 않은 것 같아요. It seems like students don't like exercising these days. (은/는 cannot be used to mark subject in sub-clause)
학생들이 대학지원은 어떻게 하나요? How do students apply for college? (이/가 used to put focus on the subject)
(3) Similarly, "학생들은" can be either "Ø students" or "the students". e.g.
교장이 교실로 들어오지 학생들은 일어섰습니다. The students stood up when the principal came into the classroom. [ All of the students/every student in the classroom => Finite number of students ]
교장이 교실에 들어 오면 학생들은 일어나야합니다. Students must stand up when their principal comes into the classroom. [ All students, regardless which school or class => Infinite number of students ]
Agreed. In English, these 2 tenses tend to be used interchangeably. But there is a small difference and it really depends on what the Speaker wishes to convey: to describe a habitual action, present simple; or to describe an action that is occurring at the moment the statement is made, present continuous.
When the action is "not habitual", then the present continuous (both in English & Korean) has to be used.