Translation:Please close the window above the bookshelf.
Think of "本だな の 上 の まど" as "the window of the [space] above of the bookshelf" or "the bookshelf's above's window".
What makes it less intuitive from an English perspective is perhaps that directions like 上 are a noun here, so "the above of [something]" is itself something that have possessive form.
No, it is wrong. It should be "wo" to the "shimeru" verb, when the window is the object of the action. If the window is the subject of the action, it should be "GA" (not wa), and the verb changes to shimaru (mado ga shimarimasu). For me, "wa" hurts my ears in this phrase.
It is not wrong. You need to remember that your are learning a different language. It's not coded English. The more literal translation is "As for the window above the bookshelf, close it please. No one speaks this way in English, so what is given as the translation is actually an interpretation.
It is a bit hard for me to understand the role of the second の particle in relation to the given translation. It is like saying literally: "As far as the window that belongs to the above-the-bookshelf (position), please close it". Can someone explain if this is a valid interpretation?
Here is how it was explained to me: の is used to connect nouns. This is not only to indicate belonging such as Mary's car, but any nouns.
Japanese book = Nihongo no hon.
American university = アメリカの大学 Amerika no daigaku
What's not intuitive is that location/position words that might be considered prepositions in English such as under, above, next to and so on are location/position NOUNS in Japanese. When I realized that that these types of words were classified as nouns it became much easier to understand. Bookcase, window, and above are all nouns, so you need no in between in order to connect them.
Tsukue no shita = under the desk
Tsukue no shita no neko = the cat under the desk
Kafe no mae = in front of the cafe
Kafe no mae no otoko = the man in front of the cafe
Splitting words into separate kana is OK.
Joining bits of incomplete words in a single block, e.g. putting together particle は and the し of 閉めて as a single "はし" block, is not. It is downright confusing.
When I listen to a sentence, I try to identify words, not standalone sounds...