Yes, most of the time. There are a few words that change their meaning somewhat (e.g. viejo amigo=old friend, amigo viejo=elderly friend), and if the adjective is inherent to the noun, but said anyway for emphatic or poetic reasons, it usually goes first, like blanca nieve for white snow.
Usually that is the case, yes. While in English we would say "the white dog", "the handsome man", or "the tall woman", in Spanish we would say "el perro blanco", "el hombre guapo", or "la mujer alta". This literally translates "the dog white", "the man good-looking", or "the woman tall", but because in the Spanish language adjectives in practically all situations precede the noun/subject (unless one wants to use more formal language as in literature, etc.), these phrases' meanings naturally are comprehended.