"La madrugada"

Translation:The dawn

March 15, 2013



Hmmph! I'm not sure why my not using the article in English would be graded as wrong. In English we don't have to say "the dawn" to mean dawn! anyway, I'm not here to learn English but Spanish. why are you grading me on my English? LOL

July 18, 2013


Right. Dawn or Daybreak should be correct. Duolingo needs to fix this.

December 25, 2013


duolingo now accepts "dawn"

August 5, 2014


but not "Daybreak"

September 24, 2015


Duolingo said "daybreak" was wrong; it should be "dawn". In view of the fact that the first item in this series of exercises was a directive to translate "the daybreak" and the correct answer, according to DL, was "la madrugada", this is frustrating! (And, yes, I did report it in the proper place - but I still have smoke coming out of my ears!)

April 27, 2017


Just worked for me!

January 6, 2016


And did NOT work for me on my computer.

March 29, 2017


Daybreak didn't work for me just now either.

April 2, 2017


As of november 26 ,2017 madrugada means daybreak according to duo.

November 27, 2017


In your opinion, is there anything wrong with "sunrise"? That's what I wrote when I came back for a review, and Duolingo marked it wrong.

March 10, 2016


Sunrise = Amanecer Madrugada = dawn Madrugada is usually from 1 AM to 3-4 AM whereas amanecer is usually from 3 AM to 6 AM more or less depending of where you are.

First comes the night, then madrugada and then amanecer

so Sunrise should not be a correct answer for Dawn, and yes Native speakers do know the difference and it is a very important one in our language.

March 15, 2016


I think the confusion for English speakers is that generally we think of dawn as first light, sunrise when sun is first ascending.

Sun breaks the darkness. We think of 5am - 7am, depending on time of year.

I'll keep a note on the hours you mentioned, but culturally they and madrugada do not match translation into everyday English.

May 22, 2016


As an American English speaker, my interpretation of what you're saying is that, "dawn (madrugada) means when there's first light in the sky, but the sun hasn't actually risen yet" and "sunrise (amanecer) means when the sun can actually be seen over the horizon". To me it sounds like the whole "32 words for snow" of the Eskimos...slightly unnecessary for everyday use, but whatever floats your guys' boat :)

June 21, 2016


Do you know if it is a regional difference or if every native Spanish speaker will day the same?

September 21, 2016


Only in Sweden 1 a.m or 2 or so , day could break sir!! "Day break" according to WEBSTER : "The time of day when sunlight first begins to appear" , therefor either SPANISH dictionary or DUOLIGO should reconsider, SOMEONE DELIGHT ME PLEASE , THANX

May 23, 2017


It appears that this word Duolingo is really tight on what is allowed for translations.

My Talking Spanish Translator/Dictionary app tells me the word can be translated as, morning , dawn , early morning , dawning.

Sunrise is an event whereas the above refer to a time.

March 10, 2016


muy bien

October 17, 2017


DL now accepts "Daybreak!"

October 27, 2017


I thought Madrugada was Sunrise

October 19, 2015



August 14, 2013


Give that man a lingot! haha

March 12, 2015


Spanish requires the use of articles much more than English does. We have gotten lazy and have dropped many of the articles before words, but they haven't in spanish.

June 1, 2015


This not "lazy", just a difference between usage in the two languages.

April 27, 2017



October 17, 2017


Daybreak is accepted

October 27, 2017


madrugada means the early hours of the morning like 2am, 3am. We don't have a single word for it in English so you can see where the confusion is coming from with these slightly mismatched translations: la alba and el amenecer are more literal translations of daybreak/dawn/sunrise

July 11, 2013


The wee hours of the morning

March 19, 2014


in english it's called "Kabab time"

September 4, 2013


English in what country?

April 18, 2015


Maybe Kabob time... But not Kabab. What better time than the wee early hours to fire up the BBQ and throw on a few Kabobs after a night out.

May 9, 2015



October 17, 2017


Kabab time!?!?!?!? Since when???

April 21, 2015


Kebab time in my country (as in the late night food in case anyone is confused... haha)

May 19, 2015


The English translation needs to be changed to the early hours! when I learned spanish in school, we were taught that this phrase in the context of "we partied until the early hours"

May 13, 2015


Or "wee, small hours"

April 27, 2017


...k8mc..., that is a wonderful explanation of what madrugada means, at least in the context in which it was used when I lived in Costa Rica. I translated it as "the middle of the night", knowing that Duo would mark it wrong. I don't think there is a right English answer, and I'm of the opinion that both daybreak and dawn are wrong.

May 10, 2016


*El alba

May 16, 2015


El alba, el amanecer* ;)

July 21, 2015



October 17, 2017


What's wrong with "early morning"? My experience in Latin America is that "madrugada" is used for the early morning period as well as for dawn.

July 22, 2013


In Ecuador, I was told that 'madrugada' refers to the period beginning after midnight and lasting until dawn. So, for instance, 'four in the morning' would be translated as 'a las cuatro en la madrugada'. So I agree with EDK-Learner.

January 17, 2016


In which country? I love learning about regional differences. Have you noticed it different anywhere else?

July 2, 2015


Yes. We lived in Barcelona for a couple of years, and la madrugada definitely meant "early morning" as in, from midnight to 5 AM. Most social life happens then, and bars advertise in the newspaper that they are open, say, "desde 2 en la madrugada hasta 10 en la mañana."

March 2, 2016


Same here in Mexico. La madrugada seems to be after midnight and before daybreak. It's a great term that English doesn't handle as smoothly.

May 29, 2018


And why not sunrise? What's the difference between that and dawn?

March 22, 2013


I guess that 'the morning' and 'the dawn' , 'daybreak' are time based. 'Sunrise' is something specific that happens at that time. Sunrise happens at 'la madrugada'. But I'm only guessing.

June 5, 2013


I agree with Scott. Dawn (or daybreak) begins at first light, sunrise begins later when the sun's appearance is imminent.

January 8, 2014


It is the "wee hours" so I wrote predawn. Dawn is daybreak is sunrise which is the end of madrugada.

November 8, 2013


Did you get it right?

September 21, 2016

  • 1205

I used "the early hours" which is correct according to my native-speaker teacher.

March 27, 2014


I teach english in Barranquilla, Colombia, and I sent a message to 6 of my students, and so far have received one reply (it's a bit late now, after 10:30pm) - My question "What hours are considered 'la madrugada'"? Her reply "4 o 5 am" (a native of Barranquilla) When I get more replies, probably tomorrow, I will post them.

Another student says "4 or 5am until around 6am, maybe as early as 3am. But I think generally 4 or 5am until around 6am."

Another student replied "Between 00:01 to 05:59 any hr in that range is considered 'madrugada'"

Another student sent me these messages in whatsapp -

[2/15/2016, 10:46 AM] Vicky: La madrugada es despues de 12am

[2/15/2016, 10:47 AM] Vicky: Si t levantas a trabajar ala 1 am

[2/15/2016, 10:47 AM] Vicky: Entonces tu dices

[2/15/2016, 10:47 AM] Vicky: Que madrugas a trabajar

O si te levantas a las 2 3 4 5 am

[2/15/2016, 10:48 AM] Vicky: Ya las 6 es normal para mi

[2/15/2016, 10:49 AM] Vicky: Madrugar es un termino de ganar tiempo

[2/15/2016, 10:49 AM] Vicky: Levantarse muy temprano

February 15, 2016


So... I've come to the conclusion that these LDCs (Little Duolingo Controversies) are what cause me to visit the comments where I learn even more than I otherwise would have. And... that's why I'm here. To learn. Brilliant Duolingo!!!

June 7, 2015


I agree. I also put sunrise and this is the first time I've visited the comments. I learned more than I ever thought possible, though I doubt I'll ever use the word la madrugadas in my ordinary speech. I thought early early morning was las manucitas.

June 11, 2015


La madrugada de los muertos? Dawn of the dead?

March 14, 2016


What about 'amenecer'?

December 29, 2014


Hi. I like to read a newspaper in Spanish for practice. Today (Aug 4, 2016) one of the articles mentions an event occurring "en la madrugada de ayer" and later specifies that it occurred "a eso de la 1:45 a.m. de ayer." So unless the sun comes up really, really early in Puerto Rico, they are using it to mean the small hours of the morning and NOT to mean dawn or daybreak.

Here is the link: http://www.elnuevodia.com/noticias/seguridad/nota/acusaranhoyaesposadeexpoliciaasesinadoensucasa-2227201/

August 4, 2016


why not the early morning

March 15, 2013


I answered "dawn" and was dinged because I didn't include the article. I think just "dawn" is a better translation. You wouldn't say "I'm getting up at the dawn."

September 19, 2013


What is the difference between Dawn and Sunrise?

• Sunrise is the moment when sun is exactly parallel to the horizon.

• Dawn is the moment when the sun has yet not appeared on the horizon, but there is still some light because of the scattering of sunlight through refraction.

• Dawn takes place earlier than sunrise.

• Dawn is also referred to as daybreak, and it is a time when there is some sunlight when sun has still not risen.

• Dawn takes place some thirty minutes before sunrise.

December 27, 2015


so what is the spanish word for sunrise then ? If sunrise is not the same as dawn then please enlighten us !!!

January 15, 2016


There aren't always direct translations between languages. The phrase I've seen used to capture the above concept of "sunrise" (as distinguished from "dawn"/«amanacer») is «la salida del sol».


(I see what you did there with "enlighten us" ;-) )

January 15, 2016


In normal, typical, spoken North American English 'dawn' 'sunrise' 'daybreak' etc are all synonymous. Regardless of the technical or dictionary definitions.

Don't sweat the details. In much of typical, spoken English, the details only cause confusion.

February 15, 2016


la madrugada is 2am to 5am (roughly) and in English this is "the early hours of the morning" (or as someone of Scottish ancestry rightly said, the "wee small hours"), but of course, Duolingo cannot process these kinds of woolly translations, but unfortunately they are completely necessary to render the Spanish meaning into normal English.

January 12, 2016


The first definition on rae of madrugada is amanacer (dawn.) The second is after midnight to before dawn. That said, the usage I am most familiar with is the second -- I listen to a news/talk station out of Mexico City on iheartradio (Siempre 88.9) that has a segment in the morning called "¿Qué pasó en la madrugada?" (or that's what the announcer always says before the segment anyhow) and it discusses what happened in the wee hours.

http://dle.rae.es/?id=Nqwq5nq http://siempre889.mx/

January 12, 2016


Madrugada means midnigjt to BEFORE daybreak

September 10, 2016


Madrugada is early morning. Period.

August 27, 2013


I put "the early hours" but it wasn't accepted!

June 19, 2015


This one and 'La madrugada de mañana' alternated for me during the entire lesson, to the point where I had to just type "Dawn" "Dawn tomorrow", "Dawn", "Dawn tomorrow", like 10+ times. There's no way to report that is there?

November 6, 2018


Maybe it's to emphasize the importance of using articles in Spanish. In English it's not that important, but it really is in Spanish.

October 19, 2013


There were no words in the drop down list!

January 8, 2014


What is the difference between sunrise and dawn?

June 30, 2014


Why is sunrise not accepted?

August 19, 2014


Can "la madrugada" mean "the sunrise" too?

January 23, 2015


How about sunrise?

January 28, 2015


Why is sunrise incorrect?

February 13, 2015


I think "sunrise" is correct.

March 2, 2015


Next question: translate sunrise.

March 10, 2015


Saying "the dawn" sounds a little awkward... I mean it's not like you would say to someone:"Hey I woke up at the dawn."

June 29, 2015


Can somebody help me remember what "madrugada" means?

August 2, 2015


the wee hours (midnight to dawn)

November 10, 2015


There are a lot of words that mean the same thing and duolingo only puts one, if you dont like it dont use it. Simple

September 5, 2015


In UK English 'the small hours' is an acceptavle phrase for this. It was labelled incorrect.

November 2, 2015


I think madrugada sounds so pretty.

January 18, 2016


I put "The sunrise" Which is the same as dawn/daybreak. And DL says I'm wrong! Is there a different word for sunrise that I don't know of?

May 13, 2016


It is not quite the same. DL possibly considers dawn as being the start of twilight and therefore acceptable as it is earlier than sunrise.

My Spanish family think that would be a silly argument. Madrugada is (according to the native speakers) the period between midnight and first light.

In English we would call it the small hours, the first watch (naut.) or the early hours. In Scotland they would more likely call it the wee hours or even the wee small owerrs. No idea what the american equivalent is.

Hope this helps, best advice is not to worry about it. DL has strange ideas about this word. I suggest you ignore.

May 13, 2016


Alright, Thank you xD

I feel stupid, but now I know :)

May 16, 2016


No reason for you to feel silly. there is a lot of conflicting info on this word. M.

May 19, 2016


la madrugada of the planet of the apes. whoever knows what i am talking about deserves a Hawaiian vacation.

December 2, 2016


"La Madrugada de la Planeta de los Simios". Also, I love that movie!

November 2, 2017


I find it interesting that there isn't a definitive English word for the 1am - Dawn time period. You would think there would be one by now, since it's such a distinct time period. I guess the closest we have is overnight, which kind of fits the word theme of afternoon.

January 10, 2017


I read a ton of the comments and looked up a ton of words on the translator, and the consensus is Madrugada actually does NOT mean dawn, but the hours BEFORE the dawn. In English there is no word for this. Dawn, daybreak, and sunrise are all the same thing in English.

March 7, 2017


I was reading a news piece the other day and I saw the word used. It was about an accident that had taken place and they had a picture of the scene. It was still dark outside but not pitch black. You could tell that it was very early in the morning before dawn or sunrise. Just a tiny bit of light. So to me that meant it was the time just before dawn,

April 24, 2017


I learned that this word also meant sunrise

May 18, 2017


Only in Sweden 1 a.m or 2 or so , day could break sir!! "Day break" according to WEBSTER : "The time of day when sunlight first begins to appear" , therefor either SPANISH dictionary or DUOLIGO should reconsider, SOMEONE DELIGHT ME PLEASE , THANX

May 23, 2017


"the sunrise" should count

May 29, 2017


That would be "El amanacer". From what I can tell, "La madrugada" more acurately refers to the part of the day especially when the sun hasn't even risen yet. Usually that's 4 to 5 am, but for some it can start as early as 1 in the morning. English doesn't have a unique word dedicated for this time--"Dawn", which Duolingo suggests, only describes the last bit of that time--but there are a few idioms that get pretty close, such as "The small hours" and "The wee hours".

November 3, 2017


I wrote "the early hours"

June 22, 2017


I took Spanish in Quito, Ecuador and my teacher taught me that la madrugada was the deepest part of the night, like 3-4AM.

June 24, 2017


In Spain this is the early hours - often still in darkness - when on your way home from a very late night out, so not always dawn or daybreak, but here i will translate it for Duo as "The dawn".

July 13, 2017


Why is the sunrise not correct? The picture graphic shows the sun coming up.

August 4, 2017


Sunrise is a synonym of down, so it is indeed the same. Said this, 'La madrugada' does not mean sunrise nor down (which would be 'el alba'). 'La madrugada' is the time between 00:00 am and 11.59 am but since there's no specific english word for that duolingo uses down. Although 'Early morning' fits ok.

September 16, 2017


Why doesn't sunrise work...it's the same as daybreak or dawn. In English they are interchangeable.

August 5, 2017

[deactivated user]

    dawn and daybreak is the sunrise

    August 8, 2017

    [deactivated user]

      dawn and sunrise are the same

      August 8, 2017


      In English maybe, but apparantly from what I'm hearing from other commenters is that in Spanish "La madrugada" refers to the part of the day starting way, WAY before the sun even begins to rise over the horizon. In fact, this period starts for some as early as 1am, just ONE HOUR AFTER MIDNIGHT if you can believe it. This is why "Early morning" is considered a better translation.

      Sunrise on the other hand, when the sun is actually touching the horizon, would be "El amanecer".

      November 3, 2017


      Why is "The dawn" incorrect?

      September 13, 2017


      el alba is the dawn. why it no accept as right?

      September 16, 2017


      That is correct. El alba is the down. If you where asked to translate 'the dawn' to spanish and you put 'el alba' and still got it wrong, use the report button.

      September 16, 2017


      As others have stated, we do not use determiners in English the same way as is done in Spanish. Every noun in English can be preceded by 'the.' Do not 'correct' my English, please!

      October 3, 2017


      Why is it that spanish words are twice as long as english words?! FFS! I can rarely find examples where the opposite is the case.

      November 18, 2017


      A Spanish person told me that madrugada means night-hours. 1-4 am for example. Isn't that correct?

      December 27, 2017


      Sailors distinguish between dawn's light and actual sunrise time.

      March 29, 2018


      I've always known "madrugada" to mean the early hours of the morning...2am 3am... not so much dawn.

      June 18, 2018


      This whole section of the tree is broken, it only has about 3 dawn related phrases.

      December 9, 2018


      Every native speaker I've talked to says madrugada is extremely early in the a.m. as in 2 or 4am definitely NOT daybreak or dawn. I answer properly to get the answer right but it is not proper use in real life to call madrugada daybreak.

      August 2, 2019


      "The morningDollar" "The dawn"

      Well, okay then.

      November 7, 2013


      Anybody else think about twightlight: breaking la madrugada

      June 9, 2014


      I agree with Lised65, I got this wrong because I did not use the article "the."

      June 19, 2014


      Sunrise is also correct: I'd never heard of daybreak.

      August 27, 2014


      Daybreak is a common term.

      August 2, 2015


      El alba is sunrise? I thought madrugada would work with sunrise too

      November 2, 2014


      Why can't I just say "daybreak" why did I have to say "the daybreak" anyway, it counted me wrong. maybe my question is dumb

      November 18, 2014


      I got it right...miraculously.

      December 1, 2014


      WOA! The Spanish word for 'dawn' is a pretty big word for just 'dawn!'

      December 1, 2014


      "La madrugada" sound like it's referring to a monster.

      February 2, 2015


      Why would sunrise not be correct?

      March 16, 2015


      did anyone else ever learn this as "las madrugadas" ? I was always taught this as a plural when I learned it in school.

      May 13, 2015


      I keep getting confused on the ending madrugada or madrudaga. Is there a good way to remember?

      June 20, 2015


      is sunrise not appropriate?

      July 13, 2015


      incorrect I said "dawn" and it was (in dulingo opinion" incorrect

      July 15, 2015


      you have day break at the start of the session!!

      August 4, 2015


      Think "sunrise" could be substituted for "the dawn".

      August 13, 2015


      It doesn't like sunrise either

      August 15, 2015


      What is the difference between the sunrise and the dawn?? Sunrise should have been accepted since that is what the pop-up said when I encountered the word.

      September 8, 2015


      This is the first time I've seen madrugada and it wants me to translate it without even being able to see what the word means? This has happened a few times now. Just thought you should know Duo.

      September 11, 2015


      I typed "the sunrise" sigh.....

      September 16, 2015


      For the LIFE of me, I cannot get the spelling of this word implanted in my memory!

      September 29, 2015


      Why is sunrise not accepted?

      September 30, 2015


      Does madrugada mean daybreak as well as alba?

      September 30, 2015


      La madrugada

      October 30, 2015


      They never went over this with me so how would I know how to spell it?

      November 30, 2015


      sunrise is also correct english as much as dawn is .

      December 27, 2015


      You gave me daybreak as a translation for this but when i put that you told me im wrong???!!! WTH?

      January 6, 2016


      I feel your pain. The same thing happened to me. To quote another DL exercise: "¡No, no es justo!"

      April 27, 2017


      DL is great and the commenters are the coolest people. Thanks for your input and support.

      February 6, 2016


      I put "early morning" and got it wrong....

      May 11, 2016


      I used sunrise and was wrong - sunrise and dawn are synonymous in English. Is there a different Spanish word meaning sunrise?

      July 25, 2016


      I got it right when i used "the morning." Is that wrong in common spanish speaking?

      September 20, 2016


      In its most used context, e.g. "dos horas en la madrugada", shouldn't "early morning" or "early hours" also be accepted?

      October 3, 2016


      Do you lose points if you use the hints??

      October 13, 2016


      Where does el crepúsculo fit in here? Is it part of la madrugada or el amanecer?

      November 27, 2016


      If my name was Dawn, would I call myself Madrugada or Dawn if I was speaking Spanish?

      February 3, 2017


      I'm not a native Spanish speaker, but I think you would continue to call yourself Dawn, since that's your actual name. It's like how we continue to call girls Reina, despite it translating to Queen in English.

      February 3, 2017


      Oh, well Dawn isn't my name, but thanks anyway.

      February 3, 2017


      I also said "sunrise"....I guess some synonyms are not permitted?

      February 5, 2017


      I'm starting to get annoyed when their correct answer requires the article. In English one doesn't always say the article, it just depends on how one is talking. Instead they should have it as an alternative answer.

      February 7, 2017


      I thought the pictures illustrated sunSET.

      February 7, 2017


      Anyone have a 'memory aid' for madrugada? It just doesn't stick with me...

      February 22, 2017


      It is not clutter! You need to read and respond to the input.

      February 27, 2017


      I will never be able to remember this word means dawn. :(

      March 7, 2017


      I read El Nuevo Día (a Puerto Rican newspaper) almost every day. On multiple occasions they have referred to hours like 1:30 AM as an hour of the madrugada. This is well before dawn/daybreak.

      March 7, 2017


      that doesn't make sense''the''dawn why isn't it at dawn or it is dawn the dawn doesn't make sense (to me at least ^-^)

      March 14, 2017


      I do not know what daybreak means

      April 15, 2017


      In American English, I cannot comment on other English-speaking countries, "dawn," "sunrise'" and "daybreak" mean the same thing. Scientifically, they are slightly different, but realistically, most speakers in most contexts do not care about the difference. After three years, I cannot understand why errors like this remain.

      April 15, 2017


      I think sunrise is the same as dawn

      April 20, 2017


      Why didn't sunrise work?

      April 24, 2017


      The dawn

      April 24, 2017


      I am assuming 'Daybreak' means 'Dawn' or 'Sunrise'.

      April 29, 2017


      I am incapable of correctly pronouncing this word.

      April 30, 2017


      In English, "daybreak" and "dawn" generally refer to the same time of day so my answer should be accepted.

      May 12, 2017


      The Akatsuki

      June 13, 2017


      I had the correct answer several days in a row, fix the problem please

      June 28, 2017


      The word had nevet appeared before how would i know ?

      July 11, 2017


      My answer was The dawn, The daybreak and you counted it incorrect but gave the same answer.

      August 13, 2017


      if you write both dawn and daybreak, duolingo does not accept your answer. only one word is accepted whereas correct answer proposes both. How about "wee hours"?

      August 13, 2017


      That makes sense. But Duolingo wants me to say 'the daybreak' instead of 'daybreak'

      October 5, 2017


      I do not have a choice of article and it is the wrong one it has already happened twice. On top of that the audio is horrible for the past three sessions.

      November 13, 2017


      I am not so long in the tooth that "daybreak" should be considered old fashioned.

      November 21, 2017


      I put "early in the morning" and it was marked wrong! But that's more accurate than dawn or daybreak. I would say those are actually wrong, because madrugada COULD mean dawn or daybreak but not necessarily, could be 3-4am too. That's why something like "early in the morning" or some of the other similar suggestions are really the only correct solution.

      November 28, 2017


      Okay Gracia

      December 5, 2017


      Okay Gracia

      December 6, 2017


      Surely "daybreak and dawn" are the same and should both be accepted. I too do not need to be taught English!

      January 17, 2018


      I wrote 'the sunrise'. Wrong?

      January 19, 2018


      Yes, sunrise only means the part of the morning when the sun is touching the horizon when it's rising, lasting less than 7 minutes. La madrugada is a much, much longer timespan, which is why better translations include "dawn" and "early morning"

      The correct definition of "La madrugada" is actually the portion of the day starting soon after midnight and up until dawn. English doesn't have a dedicated word for this time, but "early morning" and "the wee hours" get pretty close.

      January 19, 2018


      ...is breaking

      January 24, 2018


      we don't have to use 'the' in English. It depends on the usage. 'Daybreak will occur at 06:45' is acceptable

      January 25, 2018


      Here it says the correct answer is the dawn, but when I type daybreak it's wrong and the correct solution is "the daybreak".

      January 27, 2018


      Excuse me, but what's the point of dedicating the whole lesson to only one word?

      February 11, 2019


      This is completly redudant and I mean more than usual. (I understand the usefulness of repetition but this is just way over the top.)

      I'm going to skip this as I find it unnecessary.

      February 20, 2019


      i give up, after some 10 minutes reading comments on time lapses, poetry, synonyms, scottish, and the question whether you would call yourself Dawn, if you weren't called Dawn. who's teaching what to whom? this is not very productive.

      March 7, 2019


      THIS IS SO REPETITIVE! Please fix these madrugada segments--over and over and over, the same thing!

      March 22, 2019


      It is repetitive and inane exercise that should be rewritten. I've ignored it and complained about it. An unusual situation on an otherwise excellent site

      March 22, 2019
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