"We have to build a higher wall."
Translation:Il faut construire un mur plus haut.
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Your sentence with the subjunctive is a correct option.
As for "mur plus haut" versus "plus haut mur", grammar sites say that "haut" is a BANGS adjective, so we would expect it before the noun, though when modified by an adverb of two or more syllables, BANGS adjectives are placed after the noun.
Since, in this case, "haut" is modified by an adverb with only one-syllable, I don't see any need for it to change its position.
However, maybe both are possible. I've found examples of both "plus haut mur" and "mur plus haut" on the internet, and I wonder if the French in Duo's construction can actually be thought of as "we have to build a wall higher".
On the Google Ngram graph at the other end of the following link, "haut mur" is shown as more common than "mur haut", whereas "mur plus haut" is shown as more common that "plus haut mur":
Here's an article saying that the superlative can go before or after the noun:
So maybe the comparative can too.
As PeaceJoy mentioned your sentence is correct, but to explain a little the rule is that the construction "il faut que..." is followed by the subjunctive but "il faut..." is followed by the normal indicative mood. Your example is closer to the English version which specifies "we" will be building the wall, while the "il faut" version is a more general and impersonal statement which doesn't specify who will be doing it. If only Donald spoke French....
Good additional explanation, though I'll just point out that the infinitive isn't technically indicative.
(Some grammar explanations say that the infinitive itself is a grammatical mood, like the indicative and the subjunctive, and some say it isn't considered an example of a mood.)