"Can I tell you a story?"
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The other answer is only semi-correct.
It's correct about the fact that you can't just throw in 你 as a bare indirect object after 讲; you can't say "讲 you a story" like you can say "tell you a story."
It's not correct about 给你 in this sentence working like "to you," as a prepositional phrase for a recipient. That leaves 听 unaccounted for. What's happening here is that "你听" is the purpose, or intended result, of 讲故事, and 给 is a conjunction. A very literal translation would be "Can I tell a story for you to hear?"
As long as the Chinese sentence is acceptable. I agree with the first part. But I think this is not a good argument:
"If English could omit the 听, why couldn't Chinese?"
There are many cases were you can't omit something because it is just not acceptable/grammatical to omit it in a given language. You can already spot the difference in your English translation, because this doesn't seem like a normal sentence to me: "Can i tell you a story to listen?"
I get your point, but you should be putting it after the subject more often than not
This would translate back to: "I tell you a story, can?" That would be acceptable in Singlish (in Singapore), but I do not think it would be acceptable in most other dialects of English.
Chinese comes with a way of saying things. If you don't learn it as well you will at best speak a weird Chinese and at worst say things that don't make sense. You can't just guess the right translation, you have to learn it. As you gain experience it will all make sense.
In the English sentence it says "Can I tell you a story?" That is to say that is specifies the indirect object of the story telling as "you". The fact that "you" are listening is implicit in the English sentence and is explicit in the Chinese sentence.
This is just the natural way to say this in each language.
This sentence comes with the 给你听 attached and isn't accepted without it. The one about daddy reading stories to the kids comes without it and doesn't work with it. Go figure. Can anyone explain the difference, or is it just one of those 多邻国 idiosyncrasies not to be taken seriously?
In English some verbs, like "cough", don't normally take an object. The sentence structure is Subject-Verb (S-V): "My mother coughs."
Some verbs, like "drive", normally take just a single object. The sentence structure is Subject-Verb-Object (S-V-O): "My sister drives a truck" or "My sister speaks French."
Some verbs, like "give", normally take two objects: a direct object and an indirect object. A typical sentence structure is S-V-IO-DO: "My aunt (S) gave (V) my uncle (IO) a cup of tea (DO)" or "My aunt told my uncle a story."
Although there are many verbs which can fit into multiple structures, some are only used certain ways. You can't say "My sister drives my brother a car". You also can't say "My aunt recounts my uncle a story." Likewise, 講 only takes a single object: 講話、講中文、講故事、等.
But just like you can take incorrect "My aunt recounts my uncle a story" and make it correct by adding a preposition "My aunt recounts a story for my uncle to hear", likewise you can take incorrect "我講你一個故事" and add in 給: "我給你講一個故事" or "我講一個故事給你聽".
Here is one of the few references I found which actually lists some of the verbs which can take two objects: https://resources.cie.hkbu.edu.hk/chiview/2011/10/07/動詞的使用/ and this one has some more on p.49 http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/bitstream/140.119/35593/7/51508107.pdf
Yes, 'recount' and 'tell' are different: 'tell' takes two objects and 'recount' takes one and they also imply a similar but slightly different action. Just trying to give an English example to illustrate the difference between these types of verb.
In the Chinese sentence 給 is functioning as a preposition 'to', which is how we add an indirect object to a verb which only takes a direct object. In order to make this a complete translation of the English sentence, we need to include 給你 in there somewhere. But if it's totally obvious from the context who you would be telling the story to, then just leave it out: "我可以講一個故事嗎？"
If you say "我可以給你講一個故事嗎" then you don't include 聽 but if you swap it around (like in this lesson) and have the indirect object after the verb: "我可以講一個故事給你聽嗎" then you include it.
All of this is probably why this sentence is included in the course, because it's an important thing for learners to be able to adapt to some verbs having different numbers of objects between English and Chinese.
The real problem is DL's " translators " which have a Limited knowledge of English and Chinese ( after all, this site is all about money ). Thus, don't get too frustrated and strive to at least construct logically sensible sentences and improve as you continue to learn ☺.