"Is the bathroom here?"
For those who can't read the 汉字(Hán zì), here is the PīnYīn.
这里有没有洗手间 -- (Zhè lǐ yǒu méi yǒu xǐ shǒu jiān). "Here have/not have bathroom?"
这里有洗手间吗 -- (Zhè lǐ yǒu xǐ shǒu jiān ma). “Here have bathroom (Question particle)"
Also, I read online that there is no difference between "这里" and "这儿"
Apparently, Northern Chinese usually say "哪儿，这儿" and Southern Chinese often say "哪里，这里"
No, it's not the right order, just as in English we don't say "Is here the bathroom" or "Is here at the bathroom".
Also, renee.jing.h's Chinese sentences aren't correct translations of Duo's English sentence in this case. They mean something slightly different. Read these replies:
I disagree! "Is the bathroom here?" and "Is there a bathroom here" are different questions! For this question I imagine you're pointing at some door you're not sure you should enter so you ask someone "洗手间在这儿吗"! I'm not sure if your suggestion would be a good choice for this situation!
- 这儿有洗手间吗。——> There is a bathroom here.
- 这儿有洗手间吗？——> Is there a bathroom here?
- 洗手间在这儿。——> The bathroom is here.
- 洗手间在这儿吗？ ——> Is the bathroom here?
In most languages, and maybe all of them, words (and types of words) can generally go in more than one place in a sentence, depending on the rest of the structure of the sentence.
No, this Chinese says "Is the bathroom here".
"这里有洗手间吗" is "Is there a bathroom here".
These are different sentences, with different meanings. For the first, you know the bathroom is somewhere close by, but you don't know if it's right where you happen to be. For the second, you don't know if there's a bathroom anywhere in the building (or at the location) at all.
No, that would mean "Here, (in/at) the bathroom?"
"洗手间这儿" means "here in/at the location of the bathroom".
The exact phrase might not show up in a Google search, but here's a Google search for the analogous phrasing "洗手间那里".
Not all of the results are applicable, but you'll find the analogous structure and the sense "there in/at the location of the washroom" in some of them, e.g. "洗手间那里是敞开着的", effectively "the washroom area is open" (referring to home design).
Do you have a source for that construction?
See above. It's an appositional construction (aka "appositive phrase"); these are common in Chinese.
But if you've never come across the structure without "在", it's certainly safe to stick with the structure you have come across, the one with it.
In that regard the important thing for you to note is the answer to your initial question: You need "在" in order to translate Duo's English sentence.
Your English must be British. In North American English, the common meaning of "bathroom" (and "washroom") is the room with one or more flush toilets (and urinals as the case may be).
In North America it would be unusual to have a room in a house with only a bathtub or a shower stall and no toilet. In a school or fitness establishment a room with showers would be called a shower room, and I guess we'd use the same terminology at home, though we might call a room with a bathtub but no shower fixture a bathtub room, or a tub room. (That's what I'd call it, anyway, if I needed to be precise.)
Yes, it's the traditional character equivalent. But since you'd normally see traditional characters used for Mandarin in Taiwan (or perhaps Hong Kong or Macau, though these places still primarily use Cantonese), you'd be more likely to see "這裏" instead of "這兒", as that's how it would typically be said in these places (since "这儿" is more of a northern thing).
To my mind your answer should be accepted. I know of no particular set phrase in Chinese for "over here" as opposed to "here"; Duo's Chinese phrasing (or "在这里") can be used for either one.
That said, in certain contexts "over here" can be translated as "在我（们）这里" — which can also be translated as "here with me/us" etc.