Translation:He does not have children.
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Almost! ”子” is just the second half of the word "child" - 孩子. To emphasize it to be plural you could add the plural marker ”们” (men) which has a neutral tone.
That being said, most of the time the context of the sentence will decide if things are plural or not, so ”们” isn't usually very necessary.
So this sentence is saying "He does not have (any number of) children." In English, if someone said "He doesn't have a child." Then someone could make the joke "Well, does he have TWO children?" But in Chinese, the all-encompassing phrase is ”他没有孩子” Which definitively marks him as having exactly 0 children. In which case, it may raise some eyebrows if you were to state that he does not have a specifically plural amount of children with "他没有孩子们”
Not a native speaker, just what I've picked up. Corrections are welcome!
I'm not a native, and I can't say this applies in Chinese as much as Japanese, but essentially 子 means child as in 猫子 (kitten), 狗子 (puppy), and when written alone it can technically mean mouse when speaking about the zodiac signs. 孩 however, only applies to human children, especially babies and young infants. When combined, it's the Chinese compound for someone's child (ren), probably the same way 弟弟 and 妹妹 are 2 characters just because before writing, the word was 2 syllables. I'm not fluent though so please don't take this as the ultimate truth, just as an educated guess from years of studying 漢字