Translation:I saw my doctor yesterday.
True 意见 (yujian) is a better verb for meet. In English, you can get away with either 'meet' or 'see' in many instances but I think we can assume here it was an appointment and not some random on the street meeting.. What harm is there besides to get it wrong so that you don't use 意见 (yujian) and 见 (jian) interchangeably? Somewhere down the line, meet and see converged in English the way Chinese 意见 and 见 never did.
In this context (assuming in an appointment), unless you mean you ran into the doctor, 见 is only appropriate.
1) I saw my doctor yesterday (appointment) 我昨天见了我的医生
2) I saw my doctor yesterday (just saw [eg from a distance] and did not interact) 我昨天看见了我的医生 (Wo zuotian kanjian le wo de yisheng)
3) I saw/met my doctor yesterday (No appointment - met [eg on the street] and interacted) 我昨天 意见了我的医生 (wo zuotian yujian le wo de yisheng )
In conversation it wouldn't seem very long, its only 1 more syllable versus the English translation.
Maybe you could get away with "我昨天见了医生"? But if I, a novice, were to literate this, the original sentence really is short & sweet, covering any further question of when, and if it was your usual doctor. You still have holes of where, and who the doctor is, and possibly your reason for the appointment.