"The dog eats a bit of bread."
Translation:개가 빵을 조금 먹습니다.
That's right. In English we like to modify our nouns with adjectives, but in Korean, it is often more natural to modify our verbs with adverbs. Why? Because Korean is not English. Since 조금 is an adverb, it should modify 먹다.
As another example: "I eat a lot of food."
In English, we modify "food" with "a lot". However, in Korean, it would be more natural to modify the verb "to eat".
저는 많은 밥을 먹어요 (sounds unnatural)
저는 밥을 많이 먹어요 (sounds good)
Its an object marker I believe. 는/은 is topic, 가/이 is subject, and 를/을 is object in that order.
If you have a hard time identifying topic from subject like I did, the difference is something like 개가 is "the dog" whereas 개는 suggests "a dog" from what I understand. The context changes quite a bit in both languages. Sorry if you already had those figured out. Lol.