Translation:There is a bowl on the table.
Wrong, as "There are bowls" is regarded as wrong. The number of bowls is not specified in this sentence. It can mean a bowl or bowls. In the context where we talk about our observation that a single bowl exists, without mentioning other things, most likely we would say 有一個碗.
I would only say 一個碗 if it’s somehow important that there is exactly one bowl on the table. Otherwise I would just say 碗 and leave the number unspecified, even if it is in fact just one.
But aside from that I completely agree with you, “There are bowls on the table” should definitely be accepted as well.