Translation:We ate ten bowls of beef noodles, we are so full!
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A literal translation of the Chinese sentence into English as you want would be a comma splice according to English grammar without adding an "and". I personally enjoy how Duolingo is demonstrating the separate rules of grammar by showing sentences that do not have literal word for word translations, as I'm learning what's allowed & normal when composing Chinese sentences.
I'm no expert in Chinese, but I lived and taught in China for a number of years. In nearly all of the texts I have received (written in Mandarin) from my Chinese friends, they have used commas simply to separate ideas in a sentence rather than to join clauses as we do in English. So, the sentence as written in this exercise seems perfectly normal to me even though it would take some additional words to translate it correctly into English.
In English you need a conjunction, a semi colon or a colon to join two independent clauses, not a comma. Either that or you just have two separate sentences. However using a comma seems to be normal in Chinese judging by these Duo exercises.
Using just a comma to join two independent clauses in English is called a comma splice and is grammatically incorrect, although people often use the equivalent structure in conversation because in conversation people often do not care about sentence structure.
"We ate ten bowls of beef noodles, and are really full" seems like it should be the correct translation. Am I wrong in thinking it is incorrect to take a single sentence in Chinese and separate it into two sentences? The point of sentence separation is to partition ideas. If ideas belong together (i.e. are a single sentence) in one language, then they should be together in another language - you just need to adapt the exact phrasing to allow for grammatical differences. Translation cannot always be clearly 1-1, but it should at least be isomorphic (i.e. after translating one way should be possible to translate back and get the original as one of the possible options).
Hippietrail is right. Chinese frequently has a single sentence, where in English you need to use two. This is one of the reasons Chinese takes up so much less space than English. If you have ever looked at a large quantity of text written in both English and Chinese you will see that the Chinese takes up much less space .
1) The Chinese 湯 is something close to a broth. It doesn't have many ingredients in it usually, and is often used as an appetizer rather than a full meal. 麵 can be just noodles (乾麵, literally "dry noodles") or actually a soup in our perception. Here is 玉米湯, corn soup, a popular appetizer.
2) OK I guess yes, 飽 characterizes a feeling of a person/animal, not the food.
Don't get me wrong: I understand that 牛肉面 is noodles with beef broth (and if you're lucky there may actually be some pieces of meat in it 哈哈). My point was trying to make sense of how the Duolingo authors translated it, that's all. They wouldn't accept "soup" because there was no 汤 in the sentence.
"We ate" versus "we have eaten" is an important distinction in many languages including English. "We ate" is the simple past, while "we have eaten" is the present perfect. The simple past simply describes something that happened in in the past, while the present perfect describes a past event that has present consequences. So "we have eaten 10 bowls" would mean, for example, that it is the reason we are full or the reason our stomachs hurt, whereas "we ate 10 bowls" is simply a fact. I do not know Chinese well enough to tell you if that distinction exists in the language or in this sentence, but if it does, only one can be correct.