Translation:What is your name?
Chinese sentence structure (at least, so far in my rudimentary studies) are very logical and structured. Duo spices some colloquialusms up, but this literally translates to "you are called what". Looking at the definition of each word and seeing how the position changes the sentence's meaning always helps me with Chinese. Another great app for those interested is Hello Chinese, and for anyone wanting to sit down and figure out hanzi + stroke order I recommend the
Some else on here wrote
你叫什么 is 'What do I call you?' 你叫什么名字 is 'What is your name?'
As Purnimamal8 suggests it is down to context. I like to think of it in the format of an interview. First they ask for your name for formal record keeping and then they ask what you would like to be called.
Sadly Duolingo confuses matters my allowing 'What is you name' as an answer to the former. They 'technically' mean the same thing but at this point they should be kept separate.
If somebody wonders the pronunciation, the third tone (diving tone) is only pronounced as a whole if it end the sentence. If it is followed my another third tone, it is pronounced as rising tone instead. And is it is followed by any other tone than 3rd, it is said only as a half tone. This means that only the falling part is pronounced.
I think the word order in grammar is various by the different countries. In Vietnamese/Chinese, when the question is being asked, the sentence order is like "your name is what", however in English, it will be "what is your name". You should not translate the whole sentence from this language to another language word by word like a machine, just flexible and soon you will be much easier in studying.
你叫什么? ... what are you called? 你叫什么名字? ... what name are you called? 你的名字是什么? ... what is your name?
There are probably more ways than this, but just like in any language there are more ways than one to say anything. Also keep in mind that translations in Duolingo are not literal. They give you the sentences that a native speaker might say and not the word by word translation.
I think the English translation is supposed to be what the overall message means using proper grammar, as opposed to going word-by-word.
Also, on word-by word level I believe 叫 is closer to "called" (as in "what are you called?") than "name". However, I'm still just a beginner myself so please do correct me if I'm wrong!