Translation:I pass by this supermarket every day when I go to work.
I believe it's part of the 每...都 structure. It's just added emphasis on 每. Saying that it really does happen every time.
From the link:
每 + Measure Word + Noun + 都
每 + 天（ noun ）+ 都
Even though 上班 is a verb joined to 班 (a noun), it seemed unusual to me as a beginner with what I've learned on here so far. Although the examples in the link can't cover every scenario, I didn't see any verbs placed in between 每 and 都。
I wrote and posted an explanation but when I refreshed the page to ensure it was there, it mysteriously disappeared and now I am struggling to recall what I typed earlier.
A way to understand this would be to take 上班 as a noun, which it is here and as you have, and take 天 as the measure word 量词.
At least in this case, take 每次上班都, 次 is the measure word and so if you imagine with me that a person works once a day 一天一次, you can (sort of) take it to fit the formula structure given in the link: 每+天+上班+都.
An important thing to keep in mind is, as you have said, the examples in the link only cover certain scenarios and are by no means an exhaustive, or even reasonably comprehensive, list of how these are to be used.
The only, and best way of knowing for sure which is what is by reading more, communicating with others in the language and even trying your hand at writing something. A good start for now, especially to recognise these patterns, is to read more.
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