Translation:He didn't go out last Friday.
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You don't need to put 了 at the end of the sentence, just say 他沒有出去 (he did not go out). But if the sentence is affirmative: ''He did go out'', then you have to put 了 and say 他出去了。 了to me sounds affirmative to a fact - what is already happened.
没有 denotes the past tense of the action that is in the negative! 不 is used for the present tense.
I know Chinese doesn't have tenses as we know them, but I still think this is the fastest explanation possible.
More on this 没/不 is explained in the notes at the start of the lessons.