Translation:Is this your Chinese teacher?
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There are actually different ways to say "Chinese language".
汉语 (hàn yǔ) represents the language of the Han ethnic group (one of the 56 ethnic groups, which is representative of over 90% of the Chinese population), or Mandarin Chinese.
中文 (zhōng wén) encompasses all Chinese dialects (written and spoken）, but tends to refer to Mainland Chinese.
普通话 (pǔ tōng huà) literally translates to "common language" and is the official language of Mainland China.
国语 (guó yǔ) means "official language", (making it synonymous with 普通话), and used mostly in Taiwan (and sometimes Hong Kong).
华语 (huá yǔ) and 华文 (huá wén) are used in Southeast Asia (Singapore and Malaysia) to represent written and spoken "standard Mandarin"
If we look at the last example, we can take 语(written) and 文 (spoken) and add another dimension to learning!
The differences in the ways are subtle, but it enriches the language that much more :)
Yes. 中文, broken down, means Middle + language in a more literary sense. Middle refers to the Chinese Kingdom, the middle kingdom. 汉语, broken down, means Han, the dominant group of Chinese people in China and the word more specific for language, as in what we speak, what we are learning to speak.
So, it seems that Chinese shares with English the unusual grammatical acceptance of arbitrarily using a nouns as adjectives. In Romance languages I've studied, the word-for-word translation would have to come out as "Is this your teacher of Chinese?", since the word "汉语" here is a noun referring to the language of Chinese, not an adjective referring to a person's nationality. It seems that in Chinese, however, it is perfectly acceptable to say, "Is this your Chinese teacher?" in this context.
This is not "unusual" in the world of languages. All Germanic languages, including English, have compound nouns that do not use prepositions in-between, and many languages outside Europe have a similar system, such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean. Romance languages are the unusual ones on this one.