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omg! After all these time, I thought it was 太風 lol Thank you for this! ;p
The English word actually derives from 大風 (as does 颱風/台風, well according to my dictionary, though Wikipedia's currently quibbling about this) and is not quite the same. The weakest 台風 (excuse my Japanese, "named storms/tropical cyclones") are called tropical storms in English, and only the stronger ones are called typhoons. I suppose it's the same for 태풍(颱風).
Well, they do have a separate word for tropical depression: 열대 저기압. The problem is the ranking system in the Japanese region is different: 태풍, 강한 태풍 ("strong typhoon"), 매우 강한 태풍 ("very strong typhoon"), 맹렬(猛烈)한 태풍 ("violent typhoon"). Wind speeds are more important in that ranking, so whether it makes the last category or not supposedly has a lot to do with whether reconnaissance planes are sent in to measure it or not. A third way is to use their equivalent rankings had they been hurricanes . . .
The counting also differs. 10(십)호 태풍 하이선 (Number Ten Typhoon Hǎishén/海神/"sea god"/"Poseidon", very strong/category 5 at the moment, maybe just strong/category 4 supertyphoon by the time it passes us) that's about to go by us tomorrow morning was named Kristine by the Philippine's PAGASA, and K is the eleventh letter of the alphabet. That's just about to approach and pass us now. 9(구)호 태풍 마이삭 Number Nine Typhoon Maysak (Cambodian/Khmer for teak tree) was Julian, and J is the tenth letter. It's looking like a record number of typhoons will have gone to Korea this year. I hope that doesn't have to do with the collapse of the westerly trade winds . . .