Translation:I am busy in the morning.
I agree, I know how you feel, but that's what taking notes is for. I regularly translate sentences literally to gain a better feeling for the structure. You can't expect an App to know all possible English sentences. It's just not feasible. That is one of the drawbacks of not having a proper teacher. We should be glad that this is possible at all. :)
It is meant to connect the adjective to the sentence and relate it to the noun. If this means "very", then be careful, because in Chinese they often say "very". So often that it becomes wrong in the English translation. "I morning very busy." wouldn't make sense in English. We would say "I am busy in the morning." It is good to be busy, even very busy. I wouldn't mention it, unless it was the busiest day that I have ever had and I don't expect it to be that busy ever again. You wouldn't want people to think that you have more than you can handle by saying this every day. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/zs/Greeting-2/tips-and-notes If you cannot access this link, just go to the skill through the web version of Duolingo click on it and then click on the lightbulb for the tips and notes where this use of this intensifier is explained.
Sometimes that character does not work as an intensifier. See second note in this link: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E5%BE%88#Usage_notes
2020.5.17 I wouldn't say Japanese uses more characters, since there are only about 2000 that are generally used. However there are a lot of readings
In general I find Chinese hanzi more difficult because there are so many of them hence more pronunciation to remember and they're more difficult to write, especially if you also study traditional characters 繁體字 fan2ti3zi4
Also the Japanese kanji provides better hints at how they are pronounced in their Chinese borrowed readings which hanzi doesn't
很 does not mean "very" in this sentence. It is simply links the noun 我 with the adjective "busy". Here's an article to help explain better: https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Simple_"noun_%2B_adjective"_sentences
早 means early. say 早上好 at 11.30 and you're incorrect, to Chinese this is 中午。 Stop punishing people this sentence reads - I busy early, there is no auxiliary to match and no definitive time, I am busy in the morning is a future tense in English, whereas this would mean I am busy this morning, which again is future tense, nearer the time; and perhaps could mean a continuous present, however we would use at the moment. 早上 means early in English context because there is no A.M. or P.M.
"I am busy in the morning." is not a future tense in English, though you could say it before or during the morning. Same with "I am busy this morning." which is also not future tense though it could be said at the beginning of the day or during the morning. It is great to know that 11:30 would be too late to say this, so thank you.
It is not in the sentence though. 这 [zhè] = this https://dictionary.reverso.net/english-chinese/this
Literally translated yes, but 很 hěn is more of a filler word to connect the noun with the adjective, which is a requirement of Chinese sentence structure. It's actually a pretty neutral word, and there are other replacements for it when you actually want "very" like 真 zhēn or 太 tài.
Yes, it can. "我早上忙。" is a perfectly valid sentence and 很 doesn't need to be in there at all. This is how everyone I know talks. This is the standardised Mandarin I learned in a Chinese public school as a child. I'm extremely confused why this site and some other Chinese-teaching sites think 很 isn't an intensifier in some circumstances. Is this a non-native speaker thing, or a regional difference thing? Is this what they mean in Taiwan, maybe?