Is Bylo příliš cukru v těchto jídlech incorrect?
It is not incorrect and it is perfectly understandable. But I simply can not imagine the situation requiring such a word order. It sounds a bit like a Master Yoda quote.
and "bylo to ..."?
Although nevím příliš o červených vinech is correct
And also quite different.
According to my czech friend there is a word missing: "too much" should be translated as "příliš hodně" or "příliš mnoho". Why are hodně and mnoho skipped in this sentence?
příliš hodně is something strang
příliš mnoho is fine
But just příliš is completely fine. It means too much here.
Is there a rule or perhaps a norm in Czech that descriptors of place and time come before verbs?
They come at various places.