Translation:After he heard the news, he cried sadly.
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I see that you have tried to spell out for us the different meanings of two different ways to interpret the Chinese sentence: first (where de is preferentially written 得), as a complement of result, and second, interpreted as a straight forward adverbial, marked with the usual 地. As pointed out elsewhere in this discussion thread, the 3 de's, 的 / 地 / 得 are often confused or at least merged in writing not only by non-Chinese, but increasingly also by some native speakers. The character 的 is probably less subject to confusion. It makes noun modifiers out of nouns, pronouns, or adjectives, but can also be used to make noun equivalents out of adectives or more complex modifiers by implying an unstated noun head. The character 得 can be used in various types of complements, that often can be rendered as some kind of adverbial, making it somewhat more subject to confusion with the 地 of many simple adverbials.
Chinese word order generally follows the order of the temporal and logical / causal sequence, whereas in English we often violate that order for emphasis or stylistic considerations. So in English we might just as well say: He got so upset he cried after hearing the news.
Exactly. Only in that case, he would have cried happily: 他高兴地哭了。 I think that's why "难过地" is here: to distinguish it from happy crying. As English speakers, we aren't used to seeing this, because it's implied that someone cries because he is sad. But we need to get used to the idea that other languages often handle things differently.
I entered "After he heard this news, he sadly cried." which should be accepted given the official answer.
The suggested answer was "After hearing this news, he was sad he cried." which is not grammatically correct English.
"Sadly cried" is also a pretty strange phrase in English. I suppose it might make sense if, in Chinese, one needs to clarify whether the crying is joyful or tragic, but in English, it'd be better to morph "sadly cried" into the verb "wept" which is specifically a mournful type of crying.
Followup: "After hearing this news, he sadly cried." and, for that matter, "When hearing this news, he sadly cried." are now accepted answers.
However, I entered "When hearing this news, he tragically cried." this time around and that was rejected and should probably be accepted.
"ting le zhe ge xin wen" doesn't seem to have a subject, so I thought it could be from our own perspective where we heard the news so it makes sense to us that he cried. For example, this type of sentence could be said where we see a friend crying after hearing that he/she had a loved one that passed away.
"听了这个新闻" "Upon hearing this news" "On hearing this news" There should be no after...I can't remember the exact term (past progressive?) but either of the phrases I have suggested mean that the action was in the past but ongoing...as is the Chinese. It's not completely in the past...