Translation:I brought two bottles of Baijiu.
Chinese itself is inconsistent on this one, and that's probably why the Chinese for this exercise says "中国白酒", which is one way to differentiate "actual" baijiu from "白葡萄酒", i.e. white wine, which can also simply be called "白酒" in contrast with 红酒, i.e. red wine or 红葡萄酒, even though that's rather confusing.
Personally I'd prefer it if baijiu were the only drink to be called "白酒", and if white wine were always called "白葡萄酒", but I don't have any control over the Chinese language.
In English, though, it's important not to call "中国白酒" "Chinese white wine", because it's not wine. And in English we can call it "baijiu" without preceding it with "Chinese", because we don't have some other drink called "baijiu" to differentiate it from.
Not if the action is on going. Something that was initiated yesterday may still be happening and incomplete, thus not perfected. People often get confused with tense and aspect. Tense is a general reference to past present or future. Aspect tells you the length of action or the process and whether that has been completed.
Note well: you can have future perfect. As in "I will have had explained temporal grammatical rules by the time you finish reading this sentence."
What?? Aspects are for both completed and ongoing events in the flow of time- that is precisely their role to determine this. Unlike tenses, they don't use inflections to determine a location in time. 了 is also an aspect marker, not a tense marker. There are no grammatical markers of tense in Chinese - only markers of aspect, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_grammar
This means we can choose了 if we feel the action is completed but still what we might translate into present perfect. https://www.chineseboost.com/grammar/le-and-guo/
Although it is not necessary to have a time adverb/noun for past tense, English does often use it for clarification and by doing so we know not to use the perfect aspect. That's all he's trying to say.
BTW Future tense is not technically considered a separate tense since it does not involve any inflections of the verb. So, your example of future perfect is just another perfect aspect with an auxiliary to denote future.
No. Completed actions that, by translation, take the English perfect aspect can be represented by just 了in many cases (Eg Wo dao le = I have arrived or I arrived).
As you know, some of what we call present perfect aspects are complete (eg 他去了(Tā qù le.) He's gone. / He went; 他死了Tā sǐle (He's died). These may translate to an English simple past or present perfect. That's our problem not the 了's problem because the 了 is not a tense marker but an aspect marker.
While you are right that the 了 does tend to be for completed actions,, some 了 constructions are ongoing Eg 他 在 北京 住 了 两 年 了。
I also think 过了 would be more likely used for a straight present perfect translation here but I would not be surprised if this sentence, with the 了 only, could translate to it as well.
Although I do agree with most of what you said ( even though I find people's use of tenses and aspects confusing ) , I don't think most people fail to comprehend a double 了 pattern to indicate something started in the past and is still onging. That's rather distinct like your eg:
and it's a tense, no it's an aspect that doesn't seem to help educated many with an English mind. All I know is she did something involving breakfast yesterday
Duo has interesting transalations for both.
And the 500 kg gorilla in the room question:
This is one way in which Chinese attemps to deconfuse a situation that has been confused in the language. In English, we understand that "baijiu" and "white wine" are different. In Chinese, "白酒" is sometimes used in contrast to "红酒", red wine. Where there's insufficient context, then, to specify 白酒 of the original Chinese style of liquor, Chinese resorts to adding "中国".
We can still translate this as "baijiu" because the confusion doesn't exist in English, given that there's nothing else in English called "baijiu", and baijiu is clearly not wine.
I welcome corrections on the Chinese by a native Chinese speaker, but this is my understanding of the matter.
Baijiu is not wine. Chinese sometimes confuses the two drinks by imprecisely using "白酒" for both, but we don't confuse them in English, and when Chinese people say "中国白酒", they mean the Chinese liquor called baijiu, so differentiating it from white wine.
Let me know if you think I'm mistaken on the Chinese part of the equation, but it's important to understand the difference in English.
Well, at least I now have idea of what Baiju is compared with white wine. Shame no-one seems equally bothered in another module that an English fruit cake is not what the Chinese fruit+cake means. The latter is a fruit tart/gateau. The former is heavy and made with dried fruit. I checked this out with Chinese native Mandarin speakers who knew of, but had never tried, what I know as [English] fruit cake. Sounds like the same issue but converted into alcohol has happened here in reverse.
The above is true yet falls short of shame since American fruit cakes often feature fresh fruit with ample amounts of icing in the manner of a tart or sponge. This despite also having plenty of stores that sell dried fruit cakes [of the British type] often called fruit bread since it is indeed quite heavy. The Chinese adoption seems to be a hand-me-down from 80's Hong Kong cultural imports dominated by styles from the States even though the island was a crown colony. Now every major city of the mainland is littered with fresh fruit cake stores using copious amounts of cream, as if a strawberry needed to be any sweeter.
I hav said this before: the translation "white wine" should be accepted. Languages use plenty of translation borrowings; the English terms "rainforest" and "worldview" are translations borrowings from German; the name "Pippi Longstocking" is a translation borrowing from Swedish; Finnish renderings of Harry Potter character names are often translation borrowings from the English.