Translation:She is not Canadian.
I remember it by characters:
加 can mean "plus"
拿大 means "pretend" "big" or "to be self-important" (which I find funny because nada in Spanish means "nothing")
人 of course means person, so it becomes the person instead of the country.
So, put together it means "Plus the pretend big people". From there I make a picture in my head of the map of North America and say Canada people pretend to be big, but they're really plus us/US. (Btw, this is only for a "donkey's bridge" as they say in German, I have found Canadians to be some of the loveliest people on the planet.)
Since there are no hints or meanings included in the "match" exercises it's really hard. At least I can hover over characters when there are full sentences, which allows me to remember what some of these sounds mean. Are you able to hover over full sentences, even though not at any other time?
I installed the perapera popup chinese dictionary for chrome, and found it a great help - just hover over the chinese characters for a translation. Knowing the meaning of individual symbols as you learn them makes it much easier to piece together the sentences later in the lessong.
Oftentimes Chinese won't have a direct translation for things like countries, so something called a transliteration is used. 加拿大 literally means "add take big", which is total nonsense. These characters sound like "Canada", so they are used to say Canada. This is what a transliteration is. Another example would be 批萨 (pīsà) which sounds like pizza. It doesn't actually mean pizza, but because it sounds similar and because there is no word for pizza in Chinese, it means pizza. Make sense?
You are correct in that the pronunciation does not reveal the gender. However, if you look at the character itself, the left half of 她, 女, reveals that the tā being referred to in the sentence is female, because 女 means female. If the tā being referred to was male, the character would be 他. Although in the case of the male tā, the left half of the character doesn't mean male; it's the radical form of person, 人.
大 (da4) means "big" (also large, great, deep, wide, eldest, major); 人 (ren2) means "person" or "people;" hence 大人 means "big person" or "adult."
There's a cute way to remember these characters. When printed, the 2 curved strokes of 人 meet at the top, but when written by hand, the stroke on the right meets the stroke on the left much closer to the middle of that left stroke, depicting a basic "stick figure" drawing of a person, emphasizing the 2 legs, the trunk and head of the person extending above the point where the strokes meet. 大 is the same 2-stroke picture of a person, except that added horizontal stroke makes it look as if the person is holding the arms out wide, as if indicating how big something is.