Translation:Have you seen my camera?
means "Do you catch sight of my camera?"
A possible scenario is when the speaker is taking a portrait of the listener.
So "Have you seen my camera?" is not a justifiable translation.
It should be translated as "Can/Could you see my camera?"
"Have you seen my camera?" is "你 看过/见过 我的照相机吗？ "
This makes sense to me, but I feel like I don't really understand these verbs, 看过, and 见过. What is the difference, and when in general do you use them? I see they're both translated as "seen", is 过 just a particle to denote past tense? And how is this different from 了?
I would say the choice of word definitely has some local preference. For myself in particular, if I have bought a new camera and want you to take a look, I would use 看.
Come and take a look at my new camera.
Have you seen my new camera? (to check it out)
If I couldn't find my camera and want you to help finding it, I would use 見.
Have you seen my camera? (to have seen its presence)
I probably had seen it in (our) younger brother's room.
If there is a new camera model and I want to get some information from you about it, I also use 見.
Have you ever seen a camera with 80 million pixels (resolution) and is waterproof?
These 2 words are really quite difficult to clearly define and I do not want to generalize too much as to become misleading. So please take it as a few instances of native uses first.
I think Keith did a great job explaining. Here are some additional points:
A native speaker might have a bone to pick with my explanations, but I feel safe saying that this will give you a general idea:
To sum it up, 看 is more active, 见 is more passive.
看 means "to look". There is attention and purpose in the act of looking. It also means reading (looking at words with attention). 见 means "to see". This is information entering your eyes. 看见 is also commonly used. In this case 见 is a resultative compliment (the result of 看). This means something like "to look and (therefore) see".
Imagine you have a book open in front of you, but you are not paying attention to it because you are talking on the phone. You see the words on the page, but you don't know what they say yet. That is 见. Then you hang up the phone and read the page. That is 看.
了 has a few different grammatical uses, one of which is to mark ★completed actions★ (which may or may not be in the past.) This is a descrete incident of an action, it is completed.
过 marks verbs that ★have happened★. I usually see this used to discuss whether a person has ever had a certain experience or not. This is not focussed on a particular incident.
I agree with Keith_APP's explanations. But don't be nervous, we basically won't misunderstand you if you mix use 看过 and 见过 in most context. Even natives sometimes don't make things as clear as he did.
I'm a little confused as to this translation. When I hear "Have you seen my camera?" in English, I think of two possible scenarios...(1) I'm looking for my camera and don't know where it is...have you seen it (do you know where it is)? and (2) I got a new camera...have you seen it yet (I want to show it to you)?
I'm not convinced that either of these translate directly to this Chinese sentence. I'd be curious of other ways of translating this sentence into English as well as ways of translating these other sentences/scenarios into Chinese.
I feel like I need more context / explanation to really get this.
These two both mean "taking pictures" and are completely interchangeable for me. However we just say 照相机 but not *拍照机.
Sounds strange, because 看见(see) is not a verb that you can "want to." Maybe these two sentences are better:
你有看见我的照相机吗？ (Do you see my camera?)
你要看我的照相机吗？(Do you want to take a look of my camera?)
You can just say "相機" for cameras.
By the way this sentence is a bit strange for me. These two sentences would be better:
"你有看见我的照相机吗？" "Do you see my camera?"
"你看过/见过我的照相机吗？" "Have you seen my camera?"
The correct English here is "Do you see my camera?"