"It may rain on the weekend."
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会 makes it more definite, and in this case more definite that it might rain. If that sounds contradictory, then consider what I write below. It's really about degrees of prediction.
会 is a verb that indicates that a certain event is something that will definitely occur in the future. Therefore 会 can mean something 'will' happen or can happen.
If you notice in some of the other answers they only use 会 when they are talking about a weather forecast, so it is much more certain that a particular weather event - rain, overcast, snow etc. - will happen. There's one answer here for example that says "it will be windy this afternoon" where they only use 会, making it a definite prediction.
The moment you put in 可能 then it is maybe, or might, and some doubt is added to a predicted outcome.
So I would say when you add 会 to可能 it makes the situation like it is 'fairly likely' and no longer maybe.
As a native speaker, "周末可能会下雨" makes much more sense. In my opinion, the omission "会" is actually a mistake and not just "convenience" because it is supposedly "optional". Without the "会", the sentence sounds broken.
Yes, technically speaking, everyone will understand the sentence. However, such sentence is like saying "I eat now" instead of "I will eat now" or "I am eating now" in English; it just sounds broken.