"I don't like yellow, I like white."
"我不喜歡黃色，我喜歡白色。“ should be the correct answer. 黃的 and 白的 are very colloquial.
I think it is not only talking about the colours, but about the things which have yellow and white colour
I thought 黃色 sands for yellow color and you added 的 when you wanted to say something is "of yellow color".
How am I supposed to understand 黃的 in this sentence? I don't like yellow (things), ...
You are right. The closest translation for 白的 is “the white (things, ones)”. More common examples in English: the old 老的, the weak 弱的, the sick 病的, the disabled 残的 — hence the idiom 老弱病残 lǎo ruò bìng cán.
Can 黄 and 白 stand alone in any circumstances, that is without the 的 and without a 色, or is it grammatically impossible?