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How do you say THIS or THAT in Japanese? Understanding こそあど kosoado.

これ and この

English this and that can be expressed in Japanese as これ, あれ. These are used as pronouns.
e.g. これは わたしの ペンです。(This is my pen.)

これ それ あれ どれ
Kore sore  are dore

There are other set of words called demonstratives, which works as adjectives modify nouns.
e.g. あの りんご (that apple)、どの ドア (which door)

この その あの どの
kono sono ano dono  + [Noun]

Here are the difference in relative distance among the speaker and the listener using kosoado.

ko-series: Close to the person speaking
so-series: Close to the person listening
a-series: Far from both
do-series: Unknown

Kosoado chart

-
Pronoun これ
this thing
それ
that thing
あれ
that thing
どれ
which thing
Adjective この
this ~
その
that ~
あの
that ~
どの
which ~
Location ここ
here
そこ
there
あそこ
over there
どこ
where
Direction こちら⁺
this way
そちら
that way
あちら
that way
どちら
which way
Manner こう
this way
そう
that way
ああ
that way
どう
in what way

⁺ こちら can be used for polite way of saying “this person”

こっち そっち あっち どっち are more casual conversational expressions for the direction (こちら そちら あちら どちら).

Examples for Location, Direction and Manner:

ここに おいて ください。
(kokoni oite kudasai. = Please put it right here.)

・トイレ は あちら です。
(toire wa achira desu. = The bathroom is over there.)

・おかいけい ですか。
(okaikei desuka? = Should I bring you a check?)
はい、そうして ください。
(hai, sousite kudasai. = Yes, please.)

Post finder: Language guides to help with learning Japanese

November 27, 2017

8 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/T33K3SS3LCH3N

Oh god, it's Kore wa Pen desu! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FfGEr0n2nfo

February 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Mrcqm1

I know, right? It's like a magic! :O

April 9, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/ruferales

Shouldn't these be put in the actual course, why waste the effort on a discussion post that will be gone soon?

November 28, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/mrvolans

This is immensely useful. hoping the japanese course will be expanded soon!

December 12, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/_larsi_

There's a typo in the bottom example; it's soushite, not sousite

January 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/11say

No biggie. It's still clear what it means.

By the way, in Russian there are three ways to transcribe it; си (si), ши (shi) and щи (something in between), technically the third one sounds best, almost a perfect match for the Japanese, but in practice you'll see only the first two. Because reasons, I guess.

November 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/DanielaAllHun19

Waaa! Thank you so much

November 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lucia240403

thank u!! i have learned a lot!!

December 3, 2017
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