https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

95 Core Concepts in Hungarian

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What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists. Here is the Hungarian version. Enjoy!

Nouns:
1) name = név
2) water = víz
3) blood = vér
4) fire = tűz
5) stone/rock = kő, szikla
6) dog = kutya
7) fish = hal
8) louse/flea = tetű, bolha
9) hand/arm = kéz, kar
10) eye = szem
11) ear = fül
12) nose = orr
13) tongue = nyelv
14) tooth = fog
15) bone = csont
16) horn = szarv
17) tail = farok
18) egg = tojás
19) leaf = levél
20) night/evening = éjszaka, este
21) star = csillag
22) sun = nap
23) moon = hold
24) earth/soil = föld, talaj
25) salt = só
26) mountain = hegy
27) tree = fa
28) rain = eső
29) wind = szél
30) bird = madár
31) flesh/meat = hús
32) liver = máj
33) skin/hide = bőr
34) knee = térd
35) breast/chest = mell
36) person/human = személy, ember
37) man = férfi
38) woman = nő
39) child = gyerek
40) hair/fur = haj, szőrme, prém
41) mouth = száj
42) neck = nyak
43) foot/leg = lábfej, láb
44) feather = toll
45) grease/fat = zsír
46) smoke = füst
47) ash/soot = hamu, korom
48) sand = homok
49) wood = fa
50) root = gyökér
51) rope/cord = kötél, zsinór
52) path/road = út
53) year = év

Verbs:
54) die = meghalni
55) see/look/watch = látni, nézni
56) hear/listen = hallani, hallgatni
57) know = tudni
58) drink = inni
59) give = adni
60) come = jönni
61) stand = állni
62) sit/set = ülni, állítani
63) lie/lay = feküdni
64) fly = repülni
65) eat = enni
66) bite = harapni
67) burn = égni
68) kill = megölni
69) say/tell/speak/talk = mondani, beszélni
70) laugh = nevetni

Adjectives:
71) new = új
72) full = teljes, egész
73) good = jó
74) long = hosszú
75) red = piros
76) black = fekete
77) white = fehér
78) green = zöld
79) yellow = sárga
80) small/little = kicsi
81) big/large = nagy
82) wide/broad = széles
83) heavy = nehéz
84) old = régi
85) dry = száraz

Other:
86) I/me = én
87) you = te
88) what/which = mi, melyik
89) who/whom = ki/kit/aki/akit
90) one = egy
91) two = kettő
92) not/no = nem
93) this/these = ez/ezek
94) we/us = mi
95) all/everything/everyone = minden/mindenki

Please let me know if you spot any mistakes here. And if you take this list and translate it into another language, that would be awesome! I'd be sure to give you some lingots! More versions can be found here. (Be sure to check what's been translated already before posting your own.) And if you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

November 29, 2017

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/bnyugat

Really, louse and flea at number 8? I lived in Szeged, speaking Hungarian, for 1.5 years and never needed either of those terms. Now, fly (légy) or spider (pok), yes, all the time! Or bug (bogár) or insect (rovar) - yep. Also, Hungarians never seem to list verbs in the infinitive form but in the third person singular, indefinite conjugation.

November 30, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/JBHayven
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That's true, 3rd sing. subj. is the dictionary form. Probably because it is the most useful one when making derivatives.

December 1, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
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That one surprises a lot of people. Did you see in my introductory paragraphs how these words were chosen? There happen to be some very common, useful words for conversation here, but that wasn't the actual point. This is more about comparing words across languages.

December 1, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/ljikontic

Only to express all my admirations to you all speaaking so many languages.I learned them six but all my life,now I see that there are so many guys who speak so many languages.I try to make break-through in Hungarian speaking after more than thirty years of learning without speaking. Bravo. and regards from Belgrade

December 1, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
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I'll just point out that studying a language and speaking it are two different things. I've studied quite a lot, but I feel like a beginner in everything but English. (It's hard to say when you reach that point when you can actually "speak" a language.) Bravo to you for actually learning six languages!

December 4, 2017
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