"친구는 선생님께 책을 드립니다."
Translation:The friend gives the teacher a book.
Isn't "the friend" an awkward way to identify a person? "A friend" is more natural.
It IS awkward. "Friend" is kind of a subjective identification, so without further context it would normally be "my friend" or "his/her friend".
Here, the verb to give is honorific: does it mean that the speaker refers respectfully to the friend or the teacher?
Do higher repsect verb forms only apply to the subject, or can they also apply other positions? So does 주다 become 드리다 because 선생님 gets respect or because for some reason 친구 gets respect?