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Particle と

Particle has two separate but related meanings. One of the usage is similar to English word and when you connect two or more nouns.

(to) - and

Noun Noun = N and N

Japanese Romaji English
りんご みかん ringo to mikan apple and tangerine
やま かわ
yama to kawa mountain and river
これ あれ kore to are this and that
うえ した
ue to shita up and down /
top and bottom

It’s important to remember that the particle と connects nouns only. Not to be used for connecting verbs, adjective phrases, or sentences as the word “and“ does in English.

(to) - with, together with

The second usage of particle has a meaning of accompanied by another person or thing. It can be used with verbs to show a participant in an action.

Noun = with N

Japanese Romaji English
ともだち いく tomodachi to iku to go with friends⁺
せんせい はなす sensei to hanasu to talk with the teacher
だれ はしる dare to hashiru Who do you run with?

⁺ ともだち can be either singular or plural unless it’s indicated with many or number.

Let’s try to come up with the phrases using particle with either usage above.

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December 1, 2017



Ahhhh! This reminds me of an assignment I had in my high school Japanese class. I had to write about my family (and didn't know Kanji) so to say I have three brothers I wroteおとうととおとうととおとうと which is just madness. But you say it’s used to “connect two or more nouns” so is that how you write lists? Like 卵とパンと果物と野菜と水とジュースを(?)かいとりました

The second usage is going to take some getting used to. I run with her- かのじょとはしる I guess?


You can also say, さんにんの おとうと (3人のおとうと or 三人の弟). かいとる means you buy from someone, so maybe just bought かいました would be good. The last one is perfect! :D


I'm currently learning Intro 3, there this is used in sentences like 'My name is Tanaka' (田中ともうします。) I've checked a couple grammar references but none of them mentions such usage of と...


This is an old comment so maybe you've already gotten your answer, but と also has a quotational meaning. It marks a phrase that is quoted speech and is sometimes like a spoken quotation mark (that only goes at the end of what's being quoted) So saying "Tanaka to mōshimasu" is somewhat akin to saying "My name is 'Tanaka' ".


And if you could look it up in a Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar, you'd find even more uses of it.


So it means together with... in a nutshell... right?


Yeah, that's pretty much it


I should have read this before I used と for a bunch of other things ._.

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