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They're both Sino-Korean words (they come Chinese characters)
해변 literally means "sea side" 해수욕장 literally means "sea water bathing place"
So 해변 describes any seaside, but 해수욕장 describes a beach used for recreation and fun by the people. All 해수욕장 are 해변, but not all 해변 are 해수욕장.