"물이 흐르면서 빨간 꽃은 핍니다."
Translation:The red flower blooms while the water is flowing.
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The 면서 refers to the part that is coming before. The part after 면서 is the main sentence. The MAIN action happens WHILE the action in the first part (before -면서) of the sentence happens.
Many grammar patterns follow that logic in Korean.
-니까 (BECAUSE OF what happens in the clause before 니까)
-면 (IF the thing before 면 happens)