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In each of these characters, there are components that actually show you how to pronounce them.
In 排(배), that part is 非 while in 球(구), it's 求. Whenever you see these components you can bet that those characters will be read like (or similar to) 배 and 구 as in 구하다 (救하다; to save) and 배우(俳優; actor).
The Chinese equivalents are fei and qiu for anyone interested
Yes, these characters are phono-semantic (形聲字). However, the phonetic component only gives you a hint as to how the full character is pronounced, and you shouldn't rely on it. Compare 排 (pái / 배) vs. 非 (fēi / 비).
they may not be 100% accurate but it makes it easier to memorize these characters to have some detail to anchor to. I agree that you shouldn't take them for granted at first when learning the words, but when you already know these words and need to write them down in Hanja for some reason it will be easier to conjure them up in your memory because you know it has that part from the pronunciation only, and since you already know the meaning, the second part will be easier as well