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Is there a way to know which words have changed?

Saluton Esperantistoj!

Mi pardonpetas!! Ĥ diskuto denove!!

(I'll change to English to make this quicker for me)

But this time, I would like to know...

  1. Is there a Word that actually changed the Ĥ for another letter? (Officially)
  2. Is there a way to keep track of official changes like those?

Being Spanish my native language, I'm totally fine with Ĥ and I find it very useful reading some posts here in Duolingo... I decided to re-learn the words that I learned with "ĥ fobio"-style (without knowing)... that is why I want to know if any words are officially different now...

Since vortaro.net actually says that "anarĥio", "arĥaiko" and others are "arkaismoj", it has been confussing to me...


Mi scias, ke multaj esperantaj veteranoj estas laca pri ĉi tiu temo... Sed mi admiregas vin ĉiujn kaj mi volas legi viajn opiniojn pri la ĥ diskuto, nur se vi volas!!


December 12, 2017



There isn't really an "official" change to these things. Esperanto, like all living languages, will change over time. The primary goal of Esperanto is communication!


Yes, I know it may change... But Ĥ is useful for communication.


The letter Ĥ, while much less used than the other letters, isn't going anywhere. I can't recall any words that have dropped it, but know for a fact some words have dropped Ŭ in favor of V. The best example I can think of is ŭato (watt) but is now vatto.

If you're interested in this subject you may want to read https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_evolution_of_Esperanto which is a good high level primer on the subject. Also, Evolution is Proof of Life by Claude Prion http://claudepiron.free.fr/articlesenanglais/evolution.htm is a good resource as well.


I'm calling shenanigans on the claim that "ŭato is now vatto. This is hardly a common word, so any conclusion will necessarily be drawn from a paucity of data points. These words are more common as curiosities - ŭato because it's one of the few words that start with Ŭ, and vatto because it's one of only a few roots which have double letters in them. Vato is cotton wadding, but recent updates to PIV (and Vikipedio, whatever that's worth) list it with a second meaning - the suggested form of ŭato/vatto.

My bet is that ŭato will remain in the front of our minds because of its use in the phonetic alphabet.

The Piron article is worth reading, if only to show that la lago bluas really does not mean la lago estas blua as the Duolingo course might lead one to believe.

  • Kiel bluas la lago! 'what an impression of lively blue does the lake give out!'


Thank you for posting that last link especially! It was a very interesting read.

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