"I pass by this supermarket every day when I commute to work."
我每天上班都经过这家超市 is correct.
我每天上班每当经过这家超市 is grammatically wrong.
In this case 都means “always” while 每当 usually has to be used with 都 to make sense.
Here’s an example: 我每当上班时都经过这家超市, which basically means “Every time I commute to work, I pass by this supermarket.” It kind of changes the meaning since everyday is replaced by everytime, but there isn’t really a way to fit both 每当 and 每天 in the same sentence without making the sentence sound really weird.
It’s pretty complicated but you shouldn’t really worry about the details of this since you’ll probably get more confused as you try to understand all these rules and exceptions to said rules. 都 can be used in almost all situations to describe “all” or ‘every” anyways so it’s probably easier to stick with that first.