Translation:We are all anxious.
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It is often not easy to find synonyms across different languages. More or less they represent different concepts.
For Nervous, there are several meanings according to the dictionary:
anxious, worried, frightened
among these anxious will be the closest meaning. When you are desperate about getting something, knowing an outcome, or panicking in an adverse situation, that is 着急. However, if you are nervous about asking a girl for a date, you are just shy or frightened, it is not 着急.
character of easily worried or frightened
You cannot use 着急 to describe the character of a person.
of nerve or nervous system
Anxious has several meanings, and worried is one of them. According to OALD, anxious is similar to worried, but "can describe a stronger feeling and is more formal".
着急 means you are worried because something isn't happening fast enough. 急 is a feeling of anxiety or impatience, and when used as a verb, it has the same meaning as 着急. E.g.
别（着）急，一步一步来 = Take your time (don't rush), one step at a time.
三天了，她的病情还是不见好转，我们都很着急 = It's been three days, but her condition is still not improving; we are all very worried.
There is also the idiom 皇上不急急太监 "The emperor is not worried; worried are his eunuchs" = The observers are more anxious than the person involved (English translation credit to Pleco app). Here, both 急 (there is a tiny pause between them) are interchangeable with 着急, meaning to worry about something. In that sense, it is similar to 操心 and 担心.