"L'estate è arrivata."

Translation:The summer has arrived.

5 years ago

24 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Metlieb
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Is there a particular reason why it's not "L'estate è arrivato"?

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ariaflame
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Because 'essere' is the auxiliary verb and 'estate' / summer is feminine.

So it's L'inverno è arrivato (Winter (masc) has arrived)

but

L'estate è arrivata (Summer (fem) has arrived)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Metlieb
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Huh. Good to know. So far I thought "la" is the only article for feminine, and all lo, el and l' are used for masculine.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ariaflame
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See http://italian.about.com/library/fare/blfare110a.htm for some information about the definite article in Italian

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Teresinha
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l'anno (masc) = the year; l'aria (fem) = the air

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/a-muktar
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Is "L'estate ha arrivato" wrong then? Grazie

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ariaflame
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Yes, essere is the auxiliary verb that goes with arrivare. Intransitive Verbs Take Essere Simply put, intransitive verbs are those that do not take a direct object. These verbs usually express movement or a state of being. http://italian.about.com/od/verbs/a/italian-verbs-auxiliary.htm

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EleanorSam2

Does anyone know what changes the ending of arrivare in present perfect? I have seen it as arrivati and arrivata, but an obvious reason for the ending change has not popped out at me.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ariaflame
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The noun it's associated with. Summer is feminine singular so it's arrivata. Note that this only happens when the auxiliary verb is essere, possibly for reflexive verbs (it's that way in French but I can't remember for sure with Italian) and occasionally for ones where 'avere' is the auxiliary verb if the subject is prior to the auxiliary verb (either as a noun or pronoun). They have arrived would be Loro sono arrivati (or Loro sono arrivate if all of them were women)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/tjablo1976
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Why is "e" used here? I have never seen it used as "has" before.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
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Your question more generally stated is: "Why is the auxiliary verb changed from avere to essere - in this instance, we use è instead of ha as the 3rd person singular auxiliary verb going with the past participle arrivata.

When essere is the auxiliary verb, the past participle has to agree in number and gender with the subject of the sentence. See https://www.thoughtco.com/italian-past-participle-2011705 for more information.

Avere is often used with transitive verbs, which can and often do take a direct object that the verb acts on: lui ha preso la borsa = "He has taken the bag".

In general, essere is used: 1. as the auxiliary for reflexive verbs (which take the reflexive pronoun, see below)
2. for verbs of motion (including staying in place), like arrivare, andare, venire, etc.
3. in idiomatic verb conjugations (which you just have to remember - sorry, no examples there)

Sometimes, verbs taking avere are made reflexive, which both changes the auxiliary to essere and changes the meaning. When conjugated with avere, the past participle remains unchanged, but when with essere, the PP must agree in number and gender with the subject:

Example [I'm not certain of the prepositions here.]:
lei ha ricordato a suo marito - she has reminded her husband"
lei si è ricordata di suo marito* - "she has remembered her husband"

lui ha ricordato a sua moglie - he has reminded his wife
lui si è ricordato di sua moglie* - "he has remembered his wife"

le donne hanno ricordato ai loro mariti - "The women reminded their husbands" le donne si sono ricordate dei loro mariti - "The women remembered their husbands"

Comments/corrections/additions very welcome

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/sarah1104

Anyone know why is the suggestion for arrival is 'successful person'. I already knew what it meant, but thought that was interesting.

5 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ariaflame
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I suspect that in an adjective form it refers to someone who has 'arrived' or 'succeeded'

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/giovanna60615

Lhude sing, cuccu!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Neowilke

If i wanted to say "she arrived in the summer" would it be "è arrivata d'estate"?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/J-Martinez66
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è is also "has"? why is it not shown under " è " ?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Metlieb
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It's a matter of grammar. In Italian we use two auxillary verbs to construc the present perfect and past perfect tense: Essere and avere. As a rule of thumb you can say that essere is always used with verbs of locomotion and condition. E.g: Lui è andato al museo - He has gone to the museum. But: Lui ha aperto la finestra - He has opened the window. In English, we now only have to have as an auxillary verb, which is why all Italian forms of past- and present perfect are translated with have as the auxillary verbs. English used to use to be as an auxillary verb to, like many other languages, but it has just come out of use. You might know the phrase The Lord is come. This is exactly the case. We still sometimes can find to be as an auxillary verb in the English language: The train is gone. I hope this helps a little!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/J-Martinez66
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cool thanks, I just think has should be apart of the options under the words this is something that I would have never thought of thanks for your explanation! now I know :-) have a lingot

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Metlieb
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Glad I could help! And just as I see it right now that you're learning German too, it's pretty the same case there, with both sein and haben being used as auxillary verbs. Good luck and have fun learning! :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/J-Martinez66
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Thanks, I wish you the best! as well

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
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One thing that I disagree with Duo about is that I think (and Duo doesn't) that in some instances it is perfectly good English to translate essere to "to be" when used as an auxiliary.

For example, lei è andata - "She has gone" in Duo, but I think that it is also valid to translate it as "She is gone".

When a past participle is used more like an adjective or can be interpreted it that way, in many cases, it is perfectly valid English to use a conjugation of "to be". That is not always true, so perhaps that's why Duo disallows this usage - but Duo is not always correct in doing so.

Use of "to be" as an auxiliary changes the connotation and nuance of the verb, often given it an emphasis or immediacy lacking in the use of "to have".

Example: "She has come" vs. "She is come." The latter usage is somewhat more stylized and might be considered archaic (antique) - but it is a valid usage.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Weylin366674
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I'd say "she is come" is definitely archaic, but you still come across it in some translations of the Bible, e.g. "Lo, I am come." I might use it if I wanted that association. In everyday conversation we just reduce it to "She's come" and the problem disappears.

Is there an equivalent archaic form in Italian?

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sigira0

Aspetta un po ', amico! Oggi è solo il primo giorno di primavera!

11 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Pat590727

so 'come' is acceptable for 'arrivere' here, but not two sentences ago! Get your act together, Duolingo!

7 months ago
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