"L'estate è arrivata."
Translation:The summer has arrived.
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See http://italian.about.com/library/fare/blfare110a.htm for some information about the definite article in Italian
Yes, essere is the auxiliary verb that goes with arrivare. Intransitive Verbs Take Essere Simply put, intransitive verbs are those that do not take a direct object. These verbs usually express movement or a state of being. http://italian.about.com/od/verbs/a/italian-verbs-auxiliary.htm
The noun it's associated with. Summer is feminine singular so it's arrivata. Note that this only happens when the auxiliary verb is essere, possibly for reflexive verbs (it's that way in French but I can't remember for sure with Italian) and occasionally for ones where 'avere' is the auxiliary verb if the subject is prior to the auxiliary verb (either as a noun or pronoun). They have arrived would be Loro sono arrivati (or Loro sono arrivate if all of them were women)
It's a matter of grammar. In Italian we use two auxillary verbs to construc the present perfect and past perfect tense: Essere and avere. As a rule of thumb you can say that essere is always used with verbs of locomotion and condition. E.g: Lui è andato al museo - He has gone to the museum. But: Lui ha aperto la finestra - He has opened the window. In English, we now only have to have as an auxillary verb, which is why all Italian forms of past- and present perfect are translated with have as the auxillary verbs. English used to use to be as an auxillary verb to, like many other languages, but it has just come out of use. You might know the phrase The Lord is come. This is exactly the case. We still sometimes can find to be as an auxillary verb in the English language: The train is gone. I hope this helps a little!
I understand the translation, but wht must we translate from aitalian to poor English. While I am struggling to learn Italisn gramar, ehich was mising from the dialevt learned from my Nonna, I deginitely have anecvellent graspbof aenglish gramar, being a retired English teacher. So, again, why use poor English grammar?
That's because modern English doesn't use the verb to be for formulating the past and present perfect tenses. It has simply come out of use. The point of this lesson here is to understand the present perfect and that it's formed with two verbs in Italian, while English only knows one. Grammar can rarely be translated literally without sounding weird.