"Does he drink?"
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That's right -- WH questions have the verb in second position after the WH word or expression (who, what, how, why, how many, which X, ...).
The subject usually comes right after the verb then. (Unless, of course, the WH word asks after the subject, as in "Who drunk my beer?" or "What happened here yesterday?")
Why is it "Trinkt er?" (More or less equivalent to "Trinkt sie?" but masculine) and yet "Trinkt sie?" elsewhere on Duolingo is 'Is she Drinking?' which is not the same question, even taking the 'him/her' difference into account? From an English perspective, I would think the answer would be "Er Trinkt?" which I believe roughly translates to "He drinks?", which I understand to be a question far more similar in meaning to "Does he drink?" than "Is he drinking?" would be.
Trinkt er? can mean "Does he drink?" (usually) or "Is he drinking?" (right now)
Trinkt sie? can mean "Does she drink?" (usually) or "Is she drinking?" (right now)
German does not distinguish between present continuous and present simple like English does.
Er trinkt??! would be "He drinks??!" or "He is drinking??!" -- a surprised question about something that you had just heard and wanted to confirm.
English needs a helping verb "do" for negative and question sentences ("Does he drink? He does not drink.") but German does not -- we just say Trinkt er? Er trinkt nicht., as if it were "Drinks he? He drinks not."
So this helping verb "do, does, did" does not get translated into German -- it's not needed there.
Similarly with the helping verb "am, is, are" for the present tense -- "I am drinking" turns into just "Ich trinke", since German doesn't need a helping verb for the present tense.