"I give the woman a present."
Translation:저는 여자에게 선물을 줍니다.
To and from. 나는 그에게 말할게요 - I will tell him.
승희에게 주세요 - Give it to Seunghee. (you can also say 승희한테 here, it's the same)
과학선생님에게서 도교를 배웠어요 - I learned Taoism from my science teacher.
그것은 누구에게서 들었어? - Who did you hear that from?
에게 can BOTH be "to" and "from", depending on context. 에게서 can only be "from".
저는 여자에게 선물을 춥니다. I give a present to the woman. And 에게서 means "from" (I get a present from the woman)
When combining 저 with the subject marking particle 이/가, it changes to 제가 and not 저가. This is an exception and other words won't make such a change. 저는 is 저 with the topic marking particle 은/는 attached.
I typed "나는" instead of "저는" and it marked me incorrect. What is the difference between these two words?
It's an object particle. 을/를 is placed after an object. 을 is placed after a word that ends with a consonant while 를 is placed after a word that ends with a vowel.
why am I supposed to use the topic particle rather than the subject particle?
The different words with same exact meanings make things more difficult than necessary... :(