"Every Sunday, Duo swims in his gold."
Translation:Jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo in seinem Gold.
"Jeder Sonntag" would be used if "every sunday" was the subject of the sentence (nominative case). In this sentence Duo is the subject because he is the one swimming, "every sunday" is just additional information which means it must be in the accusative case. If it helps, the sentence could also read: "Duo schwimmt jeden Sonntag in seinem Gold".
Additionally, as the time phrase "jeden Sonntag" is at the front of the sentence, the verb must now come second. That is why it is "jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo" and not "jeden Sonntag Duo schwimmt"
For whatever reason, you need to use the accusative with "every [date]": jeden Sonntag, jede Minute/Stunde, jeden Tag, jeden Morgen/Vormittag/Abend, jede Nacht/Mitternacht, jede Woche, jeden Monat, jedes Jahr, jede Saison, jedes Semester, jedes Quartal...
In the same way: "[on/in] this [date now]" = diesen Sonntag ( = next/last Sunday), diesen Monat, dieses Jahr etc.; but: in dieser Sekunde/Minute ( = now), zu dieser / zur Stunde ( = now, formal; informal: in dieser Stunde), am heutigen Tag ( = today)
...and "next [date]" as well: nächsten Sonntag, nächste Woche, nächsten Monat, nächstes Jahr etc.; but: in der nächsten Sekunde/Minute/Stunde, am nächsten Tag/Morgen/Vormittag/Abend
Side note: for some reason, holidays like Weihnachten and Ostern (Christmas, Easter), which are normally used without definite article, are singular neuter words, but act like what I guess is plural here: "jede/diese/nächste Weihnachten/Ostern", "Fröhliche Weihnachten/Ostern!" ("Merry Christmas/Easter"), "weiße Weihnachten/Ostern" ("white Christmas/Easter", i.e. with snow).
Weihnachten and Ostern kind of are plural. Christmas has two holy nights and Easter has Easter Sunday and Easter Monday. Probably an artifact of language, like in English where Brit refer to teams in the plural even if the noun is singular, and Americans don't. (i.e. Buffalo is never going to win vs Manchester are overrated.)
"Jeden Sonntag Duo schwimmt in seinem Gold"
"Jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo in seinem Gold"
Why is the first considered wrong?
The second (correct) answer seems like a question to me, like "Every Sunday does Dou swim in his Gold"
Can someone point me to an explanation of word order rules for this?
Without the "Jeden Tag" preposition (which is modifying "schwimmen") the verb would be first (before the subject) in the correct answer. That's why I was confused. Without the modifier, it looks just like a question (without the question mark of course).
Is this rule in effect every time you start a sentence in German with a proposition? Or is it any time you don't start with the subject? Any links would be appreciated.
The verb goes second, period. "Jeden Sonntag" is first, so "schwimmen" has to come next. Doesn't matter what the first thing is doing in the sentence; the verb comes second. You simply can't put two things before the verb.
"Jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo ..." may look like a question to an English speaker, but German sentence structure is different from English's; it's still a statement, and that's the only way a German speaker would read/hear it. A question would have the verb first, before everything else.
The only exception is if you have something like an interjection or you're addressing someone at the beginning. Those words aren't really involved in the structure of the sentence, so they don't use up that first slot ("Ja, jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo in seinem Gold").
You know, like Scrooge McDuck? (Dagobert Duck, in German.) Apparently Duo has a huge amount of gold coins (from all the Plus subscriptions and ads, I suppose) and he likes to swim in them (like in water), enjoy their tinkling sound, throw them into the air and let them rain down on his head.
The motion needs to be into the gold-- i.e., a movement from being outside the gold to being in the gold. The best way to think about this is to use accusative for "into" and dative for "in."
- "Duo schwimmt in sein Gold" - "Duo swims into his gold" (started outside of the gold and went into it)
- "Duo schwimmt in seinem Gold" - "Duo swims in his gold" (started in it and stayed in it)
So it's "führte in den Ort" because someone's being led into the area. If someone was just being led around within the area, we would use "in dem Ort."
I could probably answer your question better if you said what you expected the ending to be, and perhaps why. But "Gold" is neuter gender and needs to be dative case in this sentence, and the neuter dative form is "seinem."
We need dative because "seinem Gold" is the object of "in" and is a location. "In" takes dative case when referring to a location ("inside something") and accusative for a destination ("into something"). In this sentence it's the former, hence the dative.
"Sonntags" is more like "on Sundays." It's a subtle difference, but "jeden Sonntag / every Sunday" puts emphasis on doing it on all Sundays rather than, e.g., every other Sunday or on random occasional Sundays. "Sonntags / on Sundays" would sound more like a contrast to doing it on a different day, e.g. Saturdays.
I would doubt that that was accepted before; it's not grammatical. The verb needs to take the second position in the sentence, so it needs to come right after "Jeden Sonntag"-- i.e., "Jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo in seinem Gold." Alternatively, you could also have "Duo schwimmt jeden Sonntag in seinem Gold."
I don't believe so. Typically, time "ideas" have to come first or right after the verb. This is because predicates are usually time, then manner, then place in German. You're right that usually you put the dative object before the accusative object (unless the accusative object is a pronoun), but this is only for true objects. I believe this is considered a prepositional phrase about time, even though it takes the accusative.
Two-way prepositions generally take dative when they're referring to a location and accusative when they're referring to a destination. Duo isn't swimming into the gold (as a destination where he's swimming to) but simply in the gold (as a location where he's swimming at). So we use dative.
Obviously, my knowledge of German (and English - I'm a scientist not a linguist) is poor. I thought that when something went at the front for emphasis (eg jetzt), the verb was swapped. So I expected that the structure would be: Every Sunday, swims Duo in his gold. A bit like Jetzt gehen wir.
I don't entirely understand your comment. The default translation for this exercise is "Jeden Sonntag schwimmt Duo in seinem Gold," which is exactly the word order you suggested. Do you have a question?
I thought that when something went at the front for emphasis (eg jetzt), the verb was swapped.
The typical way of stating this rule is that the verb goes second (in a declarative sentence, at least). So whatever you put at the beginning (subject, adverbial phrase, object, etc.), the verb needs to go next.