"It is the last fly."

Translation:To je poslední moucha.

January 5, 2018

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I'm still not sure when to use "to" and when to use "ono" for "it." Why "to" here instead of "ono?"


This is a reference for Czechs: http://nase-rec.ujc.cas.cz/archiv.php?art=5755 but you will probably need a textbook for foreigners. Aren't there some lecture notes when you click on the lesson?

From the link: "...obě zájmena mají ve výpovědi rozličné primární funkce, zájmeno ten prvotní funkci odkazovací, zájmeno on prvotní funkci zástupnou, a že jejich vzájemná zaměnitelnost je možná jen tehdy, jestliže se funkce obou zájmen druhotně stýkají.""

The two pronouns have different primary functions. "Ten" has a referring function and "on" has a substituting (representing) function.

(Please anyone correct my translation.)

So in "To je posledni moucha." the pronoun refers to the actual fly. In "(Ono) prší." the pronoun is a substitution, there is no actual "it" which is raining. There are however sentences where both are possible because both of the primary functions are usable.


Moucha is feminine. Am I correct in my assumption that 'to' isn't 'ta' because it's referring to something else besides the noun? If so, what is it referring to?

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I expected the adjective to have an -á ending to match the feminine noun. Why does it end with -í?


There are two kinds of adjectives in Czech:

  • hard adjectives, the nominative ending reflects the gender/number, e.g. mladý muž, stará žena, dobré pivo, staří muži, mladé ženy, rychlá auta
  • soft adjectives, the nominative ending is always "-í", e.g. první muž, poslední žena, zvláštní pivo, etc.

They are called "hard" and "soft" because the hard ones have a hard consonant before the "-ý/á/é" ending -- one of these: H, Ch, K, R, D, T, N.

The soft ones have a soft consonant before the "-í" ending -- one of these: Ž, Š, Č, Ř, C, J, Ď, Ť, Ň, but note that Ď, Ť, and Ň are spelled as "d", "t", and "n" before "-i" and "-í".

(There are also "ambivalent" consonants (B, L, M, P, S, V, Z) and they can be used by both types, for example "drzý" -- cheeky, a hard adjective; and "cizí" -- foreign, a soft adjective.)

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